National Economy Withstood Pressure and Reached a New Level in 2022
National Bureau of Statistics of China2023-01-17 10:00




National Bureau of Statistics of China 

     17 January 2023        

 

In 2022, faced with challenges of high winds and choppy waters in the global environment as well as arduous tasks to advance reform, promote development and maintain stability at home, under the strong leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, all regions and departments strictly implemented the decisions and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, adhered to the general working guideline of making progress while maintaining stability, coordinated the work of epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development in an effective way, and responded to the internal and external challenges effectively. As a result, the national economy continued to develop despite downward pressure, the economic output reached a new level, the employment and prices were generally stable, people’s lives were continuously improved, new achievements were secured in high-quality development, and the overall economic and social development was stable and healthy.

 

According to preliminary estimates, the gross domestic product (GDP) was 121,020.7 billion yuan in 2022, an increase of 3.0 percent over last year at constant prices. By industries, the value added of the primary industry was 8,834.5 billion yuan, up by 4.1 percent over last year, that of the secondary industry was 48,316.4 billion yuan, up by 3.8 percent and that of the tertiary industry was 63,869.8 billion yuan, up by 2.3 percent. By quarter, the GDP for the first quarter went up by 4.8 percent year on year, up by 0.4 percent for the second quarter, 3.9 percent for the third quarter and 2.9 percent for the fourth quarter. The quarther-on-quarter growth of GDP for the fourth quarter stayed the same as that for the third quarter.

 

1. The Grain Output Increased and Harvested and Production of Animal Husbandry Grew Steadily.

 

The total output of grain in 2022 was 686.53 million tons, an increase of 3.68 million tons over the previous year, or up by 0.5 percent. Of this total, the output of summer grain was 147.40 million tons, up by 1.0 percent, and that of early rice was 28.12 million tons, up by 0.4 percent. The output of autumn grain reached 511.00 million tons, up by 0.4 percent. By species, the output of rice was 208.49 million tons, down by 2.0 percent; wheat, 137.72 million tons, up by 0.6 percent; corn, 277.20 million tons, up by 1.7 percent; soybean, 20.28 million tons, up by 23.7 percent. The output of oil-bearing crops was 36.53 million tons, up by 1.1 percent. The total output of pork, beef, mutton and poultry in 2022 was 92.27 million tons, up by 3.8 percent over the previous year. Of this total, the output of pork was 55.41 million tons, up by 4.6 percent; beef, 7.18 million tons, up by 3.0 percent; mutton, 5.25 million tons, up by 2.0 percent; poultry, 24.43 million tons, up by 2.6 percent. The production of milk reached 39.32 million tons, up by 6.8 percent and that of eggs stood at 34.56 million tons, up by 1.4 percent. At the end of 2022, 452.56 million pigs were registered in stock, up by 0.7 percent and 699.95 million pig were slaughtered in 2022, up by 4.3 percent.

 

2. Industrial Production Experienced Sustained Development and High-tech Manufacturing and Equipment Manufacturing Grew Fast.

 

The total value added of industrial enterprises above the designated size increased by 3.6 percent over the previous year. In terms of sectors, the value added of mining was up by 7.3 percent, that of manufacturing up by 3.0 percent and that of production and supply of electricity, thermal power, gas and water up by 5.0 percent. The value added of the high-tech manufacturing and equipment manufacturing went up by 7.4 percent and 5.6 percent respectively, or 3.8 percentage points and 2.0 percentage points faster than that of the industrial enterprises above the designated size. In terms of ownership, the value added of the state holding enterprises grew by 3.3 percent, that of the share-holding enterprises up by 4.8 percent, that of the enterprises funded by foreign investors and investors from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan down by 1.0 percent and that of private enterprises up by 2.9 percent. By products, the production of new energy vehicles, mobile communication base stations, and industrial control computer and system grew by 97.5 percent, 16.3 percent and 15.0 percent respectively. In December, the total value added of the industrial enterprises above the designated size grew by 1.3 percent year on year, up by 0.06 percent month on month. In the first eleven months, the total profits made by industrial enterprises above the designated size were 7,718.0 billion yuan, down by 3.6 percent year on year.

 

3. Service Sector Sustained Recovery with Modern Service Industries Demonstrating Sound Momentum of Growth.

 

The value added of services went up by 2.3 percent year on year in 2022. The value added of the information transmission, software and information technology services and that of financial services grew by 9.1 percent and 5.6 percent respectively. In December, the Index of Services Production went down by 0.8 percent year on year, the decline narrowed by 1.1 percentage points compared with that of the previous month. In the first eleven months, the business revenue of service enterprises above the designated size grew by 3.9 percent year on year, of which that of the information transmission, software and information technology services, that of scientific research and technology services and that of health and social services went up by 8.3 percent, 8.3 percent and 8.1 percent respectively.

 

4. Scale of Market Sales Was Basically Stable with Sales of Basic Living Goods and Online Retail Sales Growing Fast.

 

In 2022, the total retail sales of consumer goods reached 43,973.3 billion yuan, down by 0.2 percent over the previous year. Analyzed by different areas, the retail sales in urban areas reached 38,044.8 billion yuan, down by 0.3 percent; and the retail sales in rural areas stood at 5,928.5 billion yuan, the same as that of the previous year. Grouped by consumption patterns, the retail sales of goods were 39,579.2 billion yuan, up by 0.5 percent; and the income of catering was 4,394.1 billion yuan, down by 6.3 percent. The basic living consumption increased steadily, with the retail sales of grain, oil and food and that of beverages by enterprises above the designated size growing by 8.7 percent and 5.3 percent respecively over the previous year. In 2022, the national online retail sales reached 13,785.3 billion yuan, growing by 4.0 percent over the previous year. Specifically, the online retail sales of physical goods were 11,964.2 billion yuan, up by 6.2 percent, accounting for 27.2 percent of the total retail sales of consumer goods. In December, the total retail sales of consumer goods went down by 1.8 percent year on year, a decline narrowed by 4.1 percentage points than that of the previous month; or a month-on-month decline of 0.14 percent.

 

5. Investment in Fixed Assets Increased Steadily and Investment in High-tech Industries Maintained a Good Momentum of Growth.

 

In 2022, the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households) reached 57,213.8 billion yuan, up by 5.1 percent over the previous year. Specifically, the investment in infrastructure went up by 9.4 percent, manufacturing up by 9.1 percent and real estate development down by 10.0 percent. The floor space of commercial buildings sold reached 1,358.37 million square meters, down by 24.3 percent. The total sales of commercial buildings were 13,330.8 billion yuan, down by 26.7 percent. By industries, the investment in the primary industry went up by 0.2 percent; that in the secondary industry up by 10.3 percent; and that in the tertiary industry up by 3.0 percent. The private investment went up by 0.9 percent. The investment in high-tech industries grew by 18.9 percent, 13.8 percentage points faster than the total investment. Specifically, the investment in high-tech manufacturing and high-tech services grew by 22.2 percent and 12.1 percent respectively. In terms of high-tech manufacturing, the investment in manufacturing of medical equipment, measuring instruments and meters and in electronics and communication equipment manufacturing grew by 27.6 percent and 27.2 percent respectively. In terms of high-tech services, the investment in services for transformation of scientific and technological achievements and in research, development and design services went up by 26.4 percent and 19.8 percent respectively. The investment in social sector went up by 10.9 percent. Specifically, the investment in health and in education went up by 27.3 percent and 5.4 percent respectively. In December, the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households) grew by 0.49 percent month on month.

 

6. Imports and Exports of Goods Grew Fast and Trade Structure Continued to Optimize.

 

In 2022, the total value of imports and exports of goods was 42,067.8 billion yuan, an increase of 7.7 percent over last year. The total value of exports was 23,965.4 billion yuan, up by 10.5 percent; the total value of imports was 18,102.4 billion yuan, up by 4.3 percent. The trade balance was 5,863.0 billion yuan in surplus. The imports and exports of general trade increased by 11.5 percent, accounting for 63.7 percent of the total value of imports and exports, an increase of 2.2 percentage points compared with last year. The imports and exports by private enterprises grew by 12.9 percent, accounting for 50.9 percent of the total value of imports and exports, 2.3 percentage points higher than that of last year. The imports and exports of mechanical and electrical products grew by 2.5 percent, accounting for 49.1 percent of the total value of imports and exports. In December, the total value of imports and exports of goods was 3,771.3 billion yuan, up by 0.6 percent year on year. Specifically, the total value of exports was 2,160.7 billion yuan, down by 0.5 percent; the total value of imports was 1,610.6 billion yuan, up by 2.2 percent.

 

7. Consumer Price Saw Mild Growth and Growth of Producer Prices for Industrial Products Went Down.

 

In 2022, the consumer price went up by 2.0 percent over last year. Grouped by commodity categories, prices for food, tobacco and alcohol went up by 2.4 percent; clothing up by 0.5 percent; housing up by 0.7 percent; articles and services for daily use up by 1.2 percent; transportation and communication up by 5.2 percent; education, culture and recreation up by 1.8 percent; medical services and health care up by 0.6 percent; and other articles and services up by 1.6 percent. In terms of food, tobacco and alcohol prices, prices for pork went down by 6.8 percent, grain up by 2.8 percent, fresh vegetables up by 2.8 percent and fresh fruits up by 12.9 percent. Core CPI excluding the prices of food and energy went up by 0.9 percent. In December, the consumer price went up by 1.8 percent year on year, and maintained the same level of growth month on month. In 2022, the producer prices for industrial products went up by 4.1 percent over last year and in December, it went down by 0.7 percent year on year and down by 0.5 percent month on month. The purchasing prices for industrial producers went up by 6.1 percent over last year, and in December, it went up by 0.3 percent year on year, or down by 0.4 percent month on month.

 

8. Employment Was Generally Stable and Surveyed Unemployment Rate in Urban Areas Eased Slightly.

 

In 2022, the newly increased employed people in urban areas totaled 12.06 million, exceeding the expected annual goal of 11.00 million. In December, the surveyed unemployment rate in urban areas was 5.5 percent, 0.2 percentage point lower than the previous month. The surveyed unemployment rate of population with local household registration was 5.4 percent and that of population with non-local household registration was 5.7 percent, of which that of population with non-local agricultural household registration stood at 5.4 percent. Specifically, the surveyed unemployment rate of the population aged from 16 to 24 was 16.7 percent, 0.4 percentage point lower than that of the previous month; that for the population aged from 25 to 59 was 4.8 percent, 0.2 percentage point lower than that of the previous month. The urban surveyed unemployment rate in 31 major cities was 6.1 percent, 0.6 percentage point lower than that of the previous month. The employees of enterprises worked 47.9 hours per week on average. In 2022, the number of rural migrant workers totaled 295.62 million, 3.11 million more than that of last year or up by 1.1 percent. Specifically, local migrant workers totaled 123.72 million, up by 2.4 percent; outside migrant workers totaled 171.90 million, up by 0.1 percent. The average monthly income of migrant workers was 4,615 yuan, up by 4.1 percent over last year.

 

9. Resident Income Grew Generally at the Same Pace with the Economic Growth and Income of Rural Residents Grew Faster than that of Urban Residents.

 

In 2022, the nationwide per capita disposable income of residents was 36,883 yuan, a nominal increase of 5.0 percent over that of last year, and a real increase of 2.9 percent after deducting price factors, which was generally at the same pace with the growth of economy. In terms of permanent residence, the per capita disposable income of urban households was 49,283 yuan, a nominal growth of 3.9 percent and a real growth of 1.9 percent after deducting the price factors. The per capita disposable income of rural households was 20,133 yuan, a nominal growth of 6.3 percent and a real growth of 4.2 percent after deducting price factors. The median of the nationwide per capita disposable income was 31,370 yuan, a nominal increase of 4.7 percent over that of last year. Taking the per capita disposable income of nationwide households by income quintile, that of the low-income group reached 8,601 yuan, the lower-middle-income group 19,303 yuan, the middle-income group 30,598 yuan, the upper-middle-income group 47,397 yuan, and the high-income group 90,116 yuan. In 2022, the nationwide per capita consumption expenditure was 24,538 yuan, a nominal growth of 1.8 percent, or a real decline of 0.2 percent after deducting price factors.

 

10. Total Population Declined and Urbanization Rate Continued to Grow.

 

By the end of 2022, the national population was 1,411.75 million (including the population of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen, but excluding residents of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and foreigners living in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities), a decrease of 0.85 million over that at the end of 2021. In 2022, the number of births was 9.56 million with a birth rate of 6.77 per thousand; the number of deaths was 10.41 million with a mortality rate of 7.37 per thousand; the natural population growth rate was minus 0.60 per thousand. In terms of gender, the male population was 722.06 million, and the female population was 689.69 million; the sex ratio of the total population was 104.69 (the female is 100). In terms of age structure, population at the working age from 16 to 59 was 875.56 million, accounting for 62.0 percent of the total population; population aged 60 and over was 280.04 million, accounting for 19.8 percent of the total population; population aged 65 and over was 209.78 million, accounting for 14.9 percent of the total population. In terms of urban-rural structure, the permanent residents in urban areas was 920.71 million, an increase of 6.46 million over the end of the previous year; and the permanent residents in rural areas was 491.04 million, a decrease of 7.31 million. The share of urban population in the total population (urbanization rate) was 65.22 percent, 0.50 percentage point higher than that at the end of the previous year.

 

Generally speaking, positive results have been achieved in effectively coordinating the COVID-19 prevention and control and the economic and social development in 2022, with stablized macroeconomic performance, continuously expanded economic output and steadily improved development quality. However, the foundation of domestic economic recovery is not solid as the international situation is still complicated and severe while the domestic triple pressure of demand contraction, supply shock and weakening expectations is still looming. At the next stage, we must take Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as the guideline, fully implement the guiding principles of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China as well as the decisions and arrangements made by the Central Economic Work Conference, make economic stability our top priority and pursue progress while ensuring stability, better coordinate epidemic prevention and control with the economic and social development, ensure better coordination in pursuing development and upholding security, deepen reform and opening-up in all respects, boost market confidence and stablize growth, employment and prices so as to promote the overall improvement in economic performance, achieving effective enhancement of quality and reasonable growth of quantity.

 

Notes:

 

1.The growth rate of GDP and its sub-items are calculated at constant prices. The growth rates of value added of industrial enterprises above designated size and its sub-items are calculated at comparable prices. Both are real growth rates. The growth rates of other indicators are nominal growth by using current prices unless otherwise specified.

 

2.According to the auto-revision function of the seasonal adjustment model, revisions are made to quarter-on-quarter growth of GDP and to month-on-month changes of the value added of industrial enterprises above designated size, investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households), and total retail sales of consumer goods. The revised figures, quarter-on-quarter GDP growth for the fourth quarter of 2022 and month-on-month changes of other indicators for December 2022 are as follows:

 

The quarter-on-quarter growth of GDP in 2021 and 2022 are 0.9 percent, 1.6 percent, 0.3 percent, 1.5 percent, 1.3 percent, -2.4 percent, 3.9 percent and 0.0 percent respectively.

 

Month-on-Month Growth Rate of Other Indicators in Every Month of 2022

 

 

Value Added of Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size

(%)

Investment in Fixed Assets (Excluding Rural Households)

(%)

Total Retail Sales of Consumer Goods

(%)

 

 

 

 

January

0.22

0.73

0.06

February

0.38

0.40

0.01

March

0.43

0.48

-3.46

April

-1.95

-0.76

-0.14

May

0.51

0.85

-0.32

June

0.87

0.95

3.11

July

0.31

0.15

-0.07

August

0.16

0.39

-0.35

September

0.84

0.65

0.24

October

0.19

0.08

-0.79

November

-0.31

-0.54

-0.08

December

0.06

0.49

-0.14

 

 

 

 

 

3. Industrial enterprises above designated size are industrial enterprises with annual revenue from principal business over 20 million yuan.

 

As industrial enterprises above the designated size change every year, to ensure the data comparability between years, the coverage of the data of the same period last year used for estimating year-on-year growth rates like that of products output, are as consistent as possible with the current period and different from the coverage of the data published last year. The main reasons are as follows: First, the statistical units change. Every year, some enterprises are included in the survey as they meet the threshold, while some enterprises are removed from the survey because of downsizing. Besides, enterprises that have newly gone into operation, been bankrupted, canceled their registrations or had their business licenses revoked also cause impact. Second, duplicated outputs across regions of enterprise groups have been removed based on the ad hoc surveys since duplication is found in the products output of some enterprise groups.

 

4. The Index of Services Production is the change of production in the reporting period compared to the base period with the price factors deducted.

 

5. The scope of the total retail sales of consumer goods include all legal entities, establishments and self-employed individuals involved in retail trades or providing catering services. Specifically, businesses above the designated size include wholesale enterprises (businesses, self-employed individuals), retail enterprises (businesses, self-employed individuals) and lodging and catering enterprises (businesses, self-employed individuals) with annual revenue from principal business over 20 million yuan, 5 million yuan and 2 million yuan respectively.

 

As the wholesale, retail, and lodging and catering enterprises (businesses, self-employed individuals) above the designated size change every year, to ensure the data comparability between years, the coverage of the data of the same period last year used for estimating year-on-year growth rates like that of the retail sales of consumer goods by businesses above the designated size is consistent with the current period and different from the coverage of data published last year. The main reasons are: some enterprises (businesses, self-employed individuals) are included in the survey as they meet the threshold, while some enterprises (businesses, self-employed individuals) are removed from the survey because of downsizing every year. Besides, enterprises (businesses, self-employed individuals) that have newly gone into operation, been bankrupted, canceled their registrations or had their business licenses revoked also cause impact.

 

Online retail sales refer to the retail sales of goods and services realized through internet trading platforms (including self-built websites and third-party platforms). Goods and services include physical goods and non-physical goods (e.g. virtual goods and services).

 

The total retail sales of consumer goods include the online retail sales of physical goods, but not the non-physical goods.

 

6. Data of imports and exports are from the General Administration of Customs; data of newly increased employed people in urban areas are from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security.

 

7. Employed people refer to people aged 16 and above who have the ability to work and engage in gainful employment for remuneration payment or business income.

 

8. Rural migrant workers refer to those who work in urban areas, or in the non-agriculture sectors in local or other areas for 6 months and above with their permanent household registrations being in rural areas. Local migrant workers refer to those who work in the administration area where they register their households permanently. Outside migrant workers refer to those who work in areas other than the administration area where they register their households permanently.

 

9. The median of the nationwide per capita disposable income of residents refers to the per capita disposable income of households which lies in the middle of all surveyed households ranked from low to high on the basis of per capita disposable income level.

 

The per capita disposable income of nationwide households by income quintile refers to the five equal partitions of all surveyed households, who are ranked from low to high based on per capita income level. The top 20 percent with the highest income are classified as high-income group, and the other four levels are upper-middle-income group, middle-income group, lower-middle-income group and low-income group.

 

10. Due to the rounding-off reasons, the subentries may not add up to the aggregate totals.

 

In case of any differences between English translation and the original Chinese text, the Chinese edition shall prevail.

 

Annex
FAQs  |  About NBS  |  Contact Us  |  Terms of Service National Bureau of Statistics of China,2012