Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2021 National Economic and Social Development
National Bureau of Statistics2022-02-28 09:30




STATISTICAL COMMUNIQUÉ OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ON THE 2021 NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT[1]

 

National Bureau of Statistics of China

February 28, 2022

 

The year 2021 is a year of milestone significance in the history of the Communist Party of China and the People’s Republic of China. Under the strong leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, all regions and departments took Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as the guideline, fully implemented the spirits of the 19th CPC National Congress and the Plenary Sessions of the 19th Central Committee of the CPC and fostered the great founding spirit of the CPC. All regions and departments followed the decisions and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, committed to the general working guideline of making progress while maintaining stability, fully and faithfully implemented the new development philosophy on all fronts, accelerated fostering a new development pattern, comprehensively deepened the reform and opening up, insisted on innovation-driven development, and promoted the high-quality development. We celebrated the centenary of the founding of the CPC, fulfilled the First Centenary Goal, and embarked on the new journey to achieve the Second Centenary Goal. While responding with composure to changes and the pandemic both unseen in a century, we have made new advances in fostering a new development pattern and pursuing high-quality development, and got off to a good start in implementing the 14th Five-Year Plan. China has maintained the leading position in the economic growth and the epidemic prevention and control in the world. National strategic capacity in science and technology accelerated its growth, industrial chain resilience was improved, reform and opening-up was advanced in depth, people’s livelihood was strongly and effectively safeguarded, and ecological conservation was carried forward. These are the results of the strong leadership of the Central Committee of the CPC with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core and the results of concerted efforts and hard work by the Party and the Chinese people of all ethnic groups.

 

I. General Outlook

 

According to preliminary estimation, the gross domestic product (GDP) [2] in 2021 was 114,367.0 billion yuan, up by 8.1 percent over the previous year with the average two-year growth [3] of 5.1 percent. Of this total, the value added of the primary industry was 8,308.6 billion yuan, up by 7.1 percent over the previous year, that of the secondary industry was 45,090.4 billion yuan, up by 8.2 percent and that of the tertiary industry was 60,968.0 billion yuan, up by 8.2 percent. The value added of the primary industry accounted for 7.3 percent of the GDP; that of the secondary industry accounted for 39.4 percent; and that of the tertiary industry accounted for 53.3 percent. The contribution of the final consumption expenditure to GDP growth rate was up by 5.3 percentage points, that of the gross capital formation to GDP growth rate up by 1.1 percentage points and that of the net exports of goods and services to GDP growth rate up by 1.7 percentage points. The per capita GDP in 2021 was 80,976 yuan, up by 8.0 percent over the previous year. The gross national income [4] in 2021 was 113,351.8 billion yuan, up by 7.9 percent over the previous year. The overall labor productivity [5] was 146,380 yuan per person in 2021, up by 8.7 percent over the previous year.

 

Figure 1: Gross Domestic Product and Growth Rates 2017-2021

 

 

Figure 2: Shares of the Three Industries’ Value Added of GDP 2017-2021

 

 

Figure 3: The Overall Labor Productivity 2017-2021[6]

 

 

By the end of 2021, the total number of national population [7] reached 1,412.60 million, an increase of 0.48 million over that at the end of 2020. Of this total, urban permanent residents numbered 914.25 million. There were 10.62 million births in 2021 with a crude birth rate of 7.52 per thousand; and there were 10.14 million deaths with a crude death rate of 7.18 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 0.34 per thousand. The number of population who live in places other than their household registration areas [8] reached 504 million, of which 385 million were floating population [9].

 

Table 1: Population and Its Composition by the End of 2021

 

Item

Population at Year-end

10,000 persons

Proportion (%)

 

 

 

National Total

141260

100.0

 Of which: Urban

91425

64.7

      Rural

49835

35.3

 Of which: Male

72311

51.2

       Female

68949

48.8

 Of which: Aged 0-15 (under the age of 16)[10]

26302

18.6

       Aged 16-59 (under the age of 60)

88222

62.5

      Aged 60 and above

26736

18.9

       Of which: Aged 65 and above

20056

14.2

 

 

 

 

At the end of 2021, the number of employed people in China was 746.52 million, and that in urban areas was 467.73 million, accounting for 62.7 percent for the total employed people, 1.1 percentage points higher than that at the end of the previous year. The newly increased employed people in urban areas numbered 12.69 million in 2021, 0.83 million more than the previous year. The surveyed urban unemployment rate in 2021 averaged 5.1 percent. The surveyed urban unemployment rate at the year end was 5.1 percent, and the registered urban unemployment rate was 3.96 percent. The total number of migrant workers [11] was 292.51 million, up by 2.4 percent over that of 2020. Specifically, the number of migrant workers who left their hometowns and worked in other places was 171.72 million, up by 1.3 percent, and those who worked in their own localities reached 120.79 million, up by 4.1 percent.

 

Figure 4Newly Increased Employed People in Urban Areas 2017-2021

 

 

The consumer prices in 2021 went up by 0.9 percent over the previous year. The producer prices for industrial products went up by 8.1 percent and the purchasing prices for industrial producers up by 11.0 percent. The producer prices for farm products [12] dropped by 2.2 percent. In December, out of the 70 large and medium-sized cities, 53 cities experienced a year-on-year rise in sales prices of new commercial residential buildings and 17 cities experienced a decline; 43 cities experienced a year-on-year rise in sales prices of second-hand housing, one city maintained the same, and 26 cities experienced a decline.

 

Figure 5Monthly Changes of Consumer Prices in 2021

 

 

Table 2: Changes of Consumer Prices in 2021

 

Unit: %

Item

National

 

Urban

Rural

 

 

 

 

General level of consumer prices

0.9

1.0

0.7

 Of which:  Food, tobacco and liquor

-0.3

0.0

-1.2

     Clothing

0.3

0.3

0.0

     Residence[13]

0.8

0.8

1.1

     Household facilities, articles and services

0.4

0.4

0.4

     Transportation and telecommunication

4.1

4.2

3.9

     Education, culture and recreation

1.9

2.0

1.7

     Health care and medical services

0.4

0.3

0.7

     Miscellaneous goods and services

-1.3

-1.4

-1.2

 

 

 

 

 

At the end of 2021, China’s foreign exchange reserves reached 3,250.2 billion US dollars, an increase of 33.6 billion US dollars compared with that at the end of 2020. The average exchange rate of the year was 6.4515 RMB to 1 USD dollar, appreciated by 6.9 percent over that of 2020.

 

Figure 6Year-end China's Foreign Exchange Reserves 2017-2021

 

 

New industries, new forms and models of business gathered speed to grow. Among the industries above the designated size, the value added of the high technology manufacturing industry [14] increased by 18.2 percent over the previous year, accounting for 15.1 percent of that of all industrial enterprises above the designated size. The value added for the manufacture of equipment [15] was up by 12.9 percent, accounting for 32.4 percent of that of all industrial enterprises above the designated size. Among the service enterprises above the designated size [16], the business revenue of the strategic emerging service industries [17] went up by 16.0 percent compared with the previous year. In 2021, the investment in high technology industries [18] increased by 17.1 percent over the previous year. In 2021, the output of new energy vehicles reached 3.677 million, up by 152.5 percent compared with the previous year; and that of integrated circuits was 359.43 billion, up by 37.5 percent. In 2021, the online retail sales [19] reached 13,088.4 billion yuan, up by 14.1 percent over the previous year on comparable basis. In 2021, the number of newly registered market entities was 28.87 million with 25 thousand market entities newly registered per day on average. By the end of 2021, the market entities totaled 0.15 billion.

 

Solid progress was made in the coordinated development across urban and rural areas and different regions. By the end of 2021, the urbanization rate of permanent residents reached 64.72 percent, 0.83 percentage points higher than the end of 2020. By region [20], in 2021, the gross domestic product in the eastern areas was 59,220.2 billion yuan, an increase of 8.1 percent over the previous year; the central areas, 25,013.2 billion yuan, up by 8.7 percent; the western areas, 23,971.0 billion yuan, up by 7.4 percent; and the northeastern areas, 5,569.9 billion yuan, up by 6.1 percent. In 2021, the gross domestic product in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region reached 9,635.6 billion yuan, up by 7.3 percent over the previous year; that in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, 53,022.8 billion yuan, up by 8.7 percent; and that in the Yangtze River Delta, 27,605.4 billion yuan, up by 8.4 percent. Major regional strategies such as the construction of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Areas, the ecological protection of the Yellow River Basin, and the high-quality development were further implemented.

 

Figure 7Year-end Urbanization Rates of Permanent Residents 2017-2021[21]

 

 

New achievement was made in ecological environmental protection. The national energy consumption per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP [22] in 2021 dropped by 2.7 percent over the previous year. Of the monitored 339 cities at prefecture level and above, 64.3 percent reached the air quality standard and 35.7 percent failed. The annual average concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) was 30 micrograms per cubic meter, down by 9.1 percent over the previous year. Of the 3,641 sections under the national monitoring program for surface water, 84.9 percent were fairly clean water quality (Grade I to III), 11.8 percent were Grade IV, 2.2 percent were Grade V and 1.2 percent was worse than Grade V national standard.

 

II. Agriculture

 

In 2021, the sown area of grain was 117.63 million hectares, an increase of 0.86 million hectares compared with that in 2020. Of this total, the sown area of rice was 29.92 million hectares, a decrease of 0.15 million hectares; the sown area of wheat was 23.57 million hectares, an increase of 0.19 million hectares; the sown area of corn was 43.32 million hectares, an increase of 2.06 million hectares. The sown area of cotton was 3.03 million hectares, a decrease of 0.14 million hectares. The sown area of oil-bearing crops was 13.10 million hectares, a decrease of 30 thousand hectares; the sown area of sugar crops was 1.46 million hectares, a decrease of 0.11 million hectares.

 

The total output of grain in 2021 was 682.85 million tons, an increase of 13.36 million tons over the previous year, or up by 2.0 percent. Of this total, the output of summer crops was 145.96 million tons, up by 2.2 percent, and that of the early rice was 28.02 million tons, up by 2.7 percent. The output of autumn grain was 508.88 million tons, up by 1.9 percent. The output of cereal in 2021 was 632.76 million tons, up by 2.6 percent over 2020, among which the output of rice was 212.84 million tons, up by 0.5 percent; that of wheat was 136.95 million tons, up by 2.0 percent; and that of corn was 272.55 million tons, up by 4.6 percent.

 

Figure 8: Output of Grain 2017-2021

 

 

In 2021, the output of cotton was 5.73 million tons, down by 3.0 percent over the previous year, that of oil-bearing crops was 36.13 million tons, up by 0.8 percent, that of sugar crops was 114.51 million tons, down by 4.7 percent, and that of tea was 3.18 million tons, up by 8.3 percent.

 

The total output of pork, beef, mutton and poultry in 2021 was 88.87 million tons, up by 16.3 percent over the previous year. Of this total, the output of pork was 52.96 million tons, up by 28.8 percent; that of beef was 6.98 million tons, up by 3.7 percent; that of mutton was 5.14 million tons, up by 4.4 percent; and that of poultry was 23.80 million tons, up by 0.8 percent. The total output of eggs was 34.09 million tons, down by 1.7 percent. The output of milk was 36.83 million tons, up by 7.1 percent. At the end of the year, 449.22 million pigs were registered in the total stocks, up by 10.5 percent compared with that at the end of 2020, and 671.28 million pigs were slaughtered, up by 27.4 percent over the previous year.

 

The total output of aquatic products in 2021 was 66.93 million tons, up by 2.2 percent over the previous year. Of this total, the output of cultured aquatic products was 53.88 million tons, up by 3.1 percent; and that of fished aquatic products was 13.05 million tons, down by 1.5 percent.

 

The total production of timber in 2021 reached 98.88 million cubic meters, down by 3.6 percent over the previous year.

 

In 2021, over 0.46 million hectares of farmland were newly equipped with irrigation systems and another 1.88 million hectares of farmland was newly equipped with water-saving irrigation systems.

 

III. Industry and Construction

 

In 2021, the total value added of the industrial sector was 37,257.5 billion yuan, up by 9.6 percent over the previous year. The value added of industrial enterprises above the designated size increased by 9.6 percent. Of the industrial enterprises above the designated size, in terms of ownership, the value added of the state-holding enterprises was up by 8.0 percent, that of the share-holding enterprises up by 9.8 percent, that of the enterprises funded by foreign investors and investors from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan up by 8.9 percent and that of private enterprises up by 10.2 percent. In terms of sectors, the value added of the mining industry was up by 5.3 percent, that of manufacturing up by 9.8 percent and that of production and supply of electricity, heat power, gas and water up by 11.4 percent.

 

Figure 9: Value Added and Growth Rates of Industrial Enterprises 2017-2021

 

 

In 2021, of the industrial enterprises above the designated size, the value added for processing of food from agricultural and sideline products was up by 7.7 percent over the previous year; for textile industry up by 1.4 percent; for manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products up by 7.7 percent; for manufacture of non-metallic mineral products up by 8.0 percent; for smelting and pressing of ferrous metals up by 1.2 percent; for manufacture of general purpose machinery up by 12.4 percent; for manufacture of special purpose machinery up by 12.6 percent; for manufacture of automobiles up by 5.5 percent; for manufacture of electrical machinery and apparatus up by 16.8 percent; for manufacture of computers, communication equipment and other electronic equipment up by 15.7 percent; for production and supply of electricity and heat power up by 10.9 percent.

 

Table 3: Output of Major Industrial Products and Growth Rates in 2021[23]

 

Product

Unit

Output

Increase over

2020 (%)

 

 

 

 

Yarn

10000 tons

2873.7

 9.8

Cloth

100 million meters

502.0

9.3

Chemical fiber

10000 tons

6708.5

9.5

Refined sugar (final product)

10000 tons

1482.3

3.6

Cigarettes

100 million

24182.4

1.3

Color TV sets

10000

18496.5

-5.8

  Of which:  LCD TV sets

10000

17424.3

-9.5

Household refrigerators

10000

8992.1

-0.3

Air conditioners

10000

21835.7

3.8

Primary energy output

100 million tons of standard coal equivalent

43.3

6.2

Coal

100 million tons

41.3

5.7

Crude petroleum oil

10000 tons

19888.1

2.1

Natural gas

100 million cubic meters

2075.8

7.8

Electricity

100 million kilowatt-hours

85342.5

9.7

  Of which:  Thermal power[24]

100 million kilowatt-hours

58058.7

8.9

      Hydropower

100 million kilowatt-hours

13390.0

-1.2

      Nuclear-power

100 million kilowatt-hours

4075.2

11.3

Crude steel

10000 tons

103524.3

-2.8

Rolled steel[25]

10000 tons

133666.8

0.9

Ten kinds of nonferrous metals

10000 tons

6477.1

4.7

  Of which:  Refined copper (copper)

10000 tons

1048.7

4.6

      Aluminum electrolyze

10000 tons

3850.3

3.8

Cement

100 million tons

23.8

-0.4

Sulfuric acid (100%)

10000 tons

9382.7

1.6

Caustic soda (100%)

10000 tons

3891.3

5.9

Ethylene

10000 tons

2825.7

30.8

Chemical fertilizers

10000 tons

5543.6

0.9

Power generation equipment

10000 kilowatts

15954.6

19.2

Motor vehicles

10000

2652.8

4.8

  Of which:  Basic passenger cars (cars)

10000

976.5

5.7

      Sport utility vehicles (SUVs)

10000

973.6

7.6

Large and medium tractors

10000

41.2

19.4

Integrated circuits

100 million pieces

3594.3

37.5

Program-controlled switchboards

10000 lines

699.6

-0.4

Mobile telephones

10000

166151.6

13.1

Micro computer equipment

10000

46692.0

23.5

Industrial robots

10000 sets

36.6

67.9

 

 

 

 

 

By the end of 2021, the installed power generation capacity was 2,376.92 million kilowatts, up by 7.9 percent over that at the end of 2020, among which [26] the installed thermal power generation capacity was 1,296.78 million kilowatts, up by 4.1 percent; the installed hydropower generation capacity was 390.92 million kilowatts, up by 5.6 percent; the installed nuclear power generation capacity was 53.26 million kilowatts, up by 6.8 percent. The installed grid-connected wind power generation capacity was 328.48 million kilowatts, up by 16.6 percent and the installed grid-connected solar power generation capacity was 306.56 million kilowatts, up by 20.9 percent.

 

In 2021, the profits made by industrial enterprises above the designated size were 8,709.2 billion yuan, up by 34.3 percent over the previous year [27]. By ownership, the profits of state-holding enterprises were 2,277.0 billion yuan, up by 56.0 percent over the previous year; those of share-holding enterprises were 6,270.2 billion yuan, up by 40.2 percent; those of enterprises funded by foreign investors or investors from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan were 2,284.6 billion yuan, up by 21.1 percent; and those of private enterprises were 2,915.0 billion yuan, up by 27.6 percent. In terms of different sectors, the profits of mining were 1,039.1 billion yuan, up by 190.7 percent over the previous year; those of manufacturing were 7,361.2 billion yuan, up by 31.6 percent; and those of the production and supply of electricity, heat power, gas and water were 308.9 billion yuan, down by 41.9 percent. In 2021, the cost for per-hundred-yuan business revenue of the industrial enterprises above the designated size was 83.74 yuan, or 0.23 yuan less than that of 2020; the profit rate of the business revenue was 6.81 percent, up by 0.76 percentage points. By the end of 2021, the asset-liability ratio of industrial enterprises above the designated size was 56.1 percent, 0.1 percentage points lower than the end of 2020. The national industrial capacity utilization rate [28] was 77.5 percent in 2021.

 

In 2021, the value added of construction enterprises in China was 8,013.8 billion yuan, up by 2.1 percent over the previous year. The profits made by construction enterprises qualified for general contracts and specialized contracts reached 855.4 billion yuan, up by 1.3 percent over the previous year, of which the profits made by state-holding enterprises were 362.0 billion yuan, up by 8.0 percent.

 

Figure 10: Value Added and Growth Rates of Construction Industry 2017-2021

 

 

IV. Service Sector

 

In 2021, the value added of the wholesale and retail trades was 11,049.3 billion yuan, up by 11.3 percent over the previous year; that of transport, storage and post was 4,706.1 billion yuan, up by 12.1 percent; that of hotels and catering services was 1,785.3 billion yuan, up by 14.5 percent; that of financial intermediation was 9,120.6 billion yuan, up by 4.8 percent; that of real estate was 7,756.1 billion yuan, up by 5.2 percent; that of information transmission, software and information technology services was 4,395.6 billion yuan, up by 17.2 percent; and that of leasing and business services was 3,535.0 billion yuan, up by 6.2 percent. In 2021, the business revenue of service enterprises above the designated size grew by 18.7 percent over the previous year, and the operating profits increased by 13.4 percent.

 

Figure 11: Value Added and Growth Rates of Service Sector 2017-2021

 

 

The total freight traffic [29] in 2021 reached 53.0 billion tons. The freight flows were 22,357.4 billion ton-kilometers. The volume of freight handled by ports throughout the year totaled 15.5 billion tons, up by 6.8 percent over the previous year, of which the freight for foreign trade was 4.7 billion tons, up by 4.5 percent. Container shipping of ports reached 282.72 million standard containers, up by 7.0 percent.

 

Table 4: Freight Traffic by All Means of Transportation and Growth Rates in 2021

 

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase over 2020(%)

 

 

 

 

Total freight traffic

100 million tons

529.7

12.3

 Railways

100 million tons

47.2

5.9

 Highways

100 million tons

391.4

14.2

 Waterways

100 million tons

82.4

8.2

 Civil aviation

10000 tons

731.8

8.2

 Pipelines

100 million tons

8.7

5.7

Freight flows

100 million ton-kilometers

223574.4

13.7

 Railways

100 million ton-kilometers

33190.7

9.3

 Highways

100 million ton-kilometers

69087.7

14.8

 Waterways

100 million ton-kilometers

115577.5

9.2

 Civil aviation

100 million ton-kilometers

278.2

15.8

 Pipelines

100 million ton-kilometers

5440.3

4.9

 

 

 

 

 

In 2021, the total passenger traffic was 8.3 billion person-times, down by 14.1 percent over 2020, and the passenger flows were 1,975.8 billion person-kilometers, up by 2.6 percent.

 

Table 5: Passenger Traffic by All Means of Transportation and Growth Rates in 2021

 

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase over 2020(%)

 

 

 

 

Total passenger traffic

100 million person-times

83.0

-14.1

 Railways

100 million person-times

26.1

18.5

 Highways

100 million person-times

50.9

-26.2

 Waterways

100 million person-times

1.6

9.0

 Civil aviation

100 million person-times

4.4

5.5

Passenger flows

100 million person-kilometers

19758.2

2.6

 Railways

100 million person-kilometers

9567.8

15.7

 Highways

100 million person-kilometers

3627.5

-21.8

 Waterways

100 million person-kilometers

33.1

0.4

 Civil aviation

100 million person-kilometers

6529.7

3.5

 

 

 

 

 

The total number of motor vehicles for civilian use reached 301.51 million (including 7.32 million tri-wheel motor vehicles and low-speed trucks) by the end of 2021, up by 20.64 million over that at the end of 2020, of which the privately-owned vehicles numbered 262.46 million, an increase of 18.52 million. The total number of cars for civilian use was 167.39 million, an increase of 10.99 million, of which the privately-owned cars numbered 157.32 million, an increase of 10.59 million.

 

The turnover of post services [30] totaled 1,369.8 billion yuan, up by 25.1 percent over the previous year. In 2021, the number of mail delivery was 1.09 billion; that of parcel delivery was 20 million; and that of express delivery was 108.30 billion with a revenue reaching 1,033.2 billion yuan. The turnover of telecommunication services [31] totaled 1,696.0 billion yuan, up by 27.8 percent over the previous year. By the end of 2021, there were 9.96 million mobile phone base stations [32], among which the number of 4G base stations reached 5.90 million and that of 5G base stations 1.43 million. In 2021, there were 1,823.53 million phone subscribers in China, of whom 1,642.83 million were mobile phone subscribers. The mobile phone coverage was 116.3 sets per 100 persons. The number of fixed broadband internet users [33] reached 535.79 million, an increase of 52.24 million over the end of the previous year. Of this total, fixed fiber-optic broadband internet users [34] amounted to 505.51 million, an increase of 51.36 million. Users of cellular internet of things terminals [35] totaled 1.399 billion, an increase of 0.264 billion.The number of internet user was 1.032 billion, 1.029 billion of which were mobile internet surfers [36]. The coverage of internet was 73.0 percent, and 57.6 percent in rural areas. The mobile internet traffic in 2021 was 221.6 billion gigabytes, up by 33.9 percent over the previous year. Software revenue of software and information technology services industry [37] in 2021 was 9,499.4 billion yuan, up by 17.7 percent over 2020 on a comparable basis.

 

Figure 12: Express Delivery and Growth Rates 2017-2021

 

 

Figure 13: Year-end Number of Fixed Broadband Internet Users

2017-2021

 

 

V. Domestic Trade

 

In 2021, the total retail sales of consumer goods reached 44,082.3 billion yuan, an increase of 12.5 percent over the previous year. An analysis on different areas showed that the retail sales of consumer goods in urban areas stood at 38,155.8 billion yuan, up by 12.5 percent, and that in rural areas reached 5,926.5 billion yuan, up by 12.1 percent. Grouped by consumption patterns, the retail sales of commodities was 39,392.8 billion yuan, up by 11.8 percent, and that of catering industry was 4,689.5 billion yuan, up by 18.6 percent.

 

Figure 14: Total Retail Sales of Consumer Goods and Growth Rates 2017-2021

 

 

Of the total retail sales of commodities by enterprises above the designated size, the retail sales for grain, oil and food went up by 10.8 percent over the previous year; beverage up by 20.4 percent; tobacco and liquor up by 21.2 percent; clothes, shoes, hats and textiles up by 12.7 percent; cosmetics up by 14.0 percent; gold, silver and jewelry up by 29.8 percent; daily necessities up by 14.4 percent; household appliances and audio-video equipment up by 10.0 percent; traditional Chinese and western medicines up by 9.9 percent; cultural and office appliances up by 18.8 percent; furniture up by 14.5 percent; telecommunication equipment up by 14.6 percent; building and decoration materials up by 20.4 percent; petroleum and petroleum products up by 21.2 percent; and motor vehicles up by 7.6 percent.

 

In 2021, the online retail sales of physical goods were 10,804.2 billion yuan, up by 12.0 percent over the previous year on a comparable basis, accounting for 24.5 percent of the total retail sales of consumer goods.

 

VI. Investment in Fixed Assets

 

The total investment in fixed assets [38] of the country in 2021 was 55,288.4 billion yuan, up by 4.9 percent over the previous year. Of the total, the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households) was 54,454.7 billion yuan, up by 4.9 percent. Of the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households), by regions [39], the investment in eastern areas was up by 6.4 percent, central areas up by 10.2 percent, western areas up by 3.9 percent, and northeastern areas up by 5.7 percent.

 

Of the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households), the investment in the primary industry was 1,427.5 billion yuan, up by 9.1 percent over the previous year; that in the secondary industry was 16,739.5 billion yuan, up by 11.3 percent; and that in the tertiary industry was 36,287.7 billion yuan, up by 2.1 percent. The private investment in fixed assets [40] was 30,765.9 billion yuan, up by 7.0 percent. The investment in infrastructure [41] increased by 0.4 percent. The investment in social sector [42] increased by 10.7 percent.

 

Figure 15: Shares of Investment in Fixed Assets of the Three Industries

(Excluding Rural Households) in 2021

 

 

Table 6: Growth Rates of Investment in Fixed Assets (Excluding Rural Households) by Sectors in 2021

 

Sector

Increase over 2020 (%)

Sector

Increase over 2020 (%)

 

 

 

 

Total

4.9

Financial Intermediation

1.9

Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery

9.3

Real Estate[43]

5.0

Mining

10.9

Leasing and Business Services

13.6

Manufacturing

13.5

Scientific Research and Technical Services

14.5

Production and Supply of Electricity, Heat Power, Gas and Water

1.1

Water Conservancy, Environment and Public Facilities Management

-1.2

Construction

1.6

Services to Households, Repair and Other Services

-10.3

Wholesale and Retail Trades

-5.9

Education

11.7

Transport, Storage and Post

1.6

Health and Social Service

19.5

Hotels and Catering Services

6.6

Culture, Sports and Entertainment

1.6

Information Transmission, Software and Information Technology Services

-12.1

Public Management, Social Security and Social Organizations

-38.2

 

 

 

 

 

Table 7: Newly Increased Production and Operation Capacity through Fixed Assets Investment in 2021

 

Item

Unit

Volume

 

 

 

Newly increased power transformer equipment with a capacity of over 220 kilovolts

10,000 kilovolt-amperes

24334

New railways put into operation

kilometer

4208

 Of which, high-speed railways

kilometer

2168

Extended or new double-track railways put into operation

kilometer

2769

Electrified railways put into operation

kilometer

4189

Length of new and rebuilt highways

kilometer

9028

New throughput capacity of berths for over 10,000-tonnage ships

10,000 tons/year

25368

New civil transportation airports

-

7

New lines of optical-fiber cables

10,000 km

319

 

 

 

 

In 2021, the investment in real estate development was 14,760.2 billion yuan, up by 4.4 percent over the previous year. Of this total, the investment in residential buildings reached 11,117.3 billion yuan, an increase of 6.4 percent, that in office buildings was 597.4 billion yuan, down by 8.0 percent, and that in buildings for commercial business was 1,244.5 billion yuan, down by 4.8 percent. The floor space of the commercial buildings for sale was 510.23 million square meters at the end of 2021, an increase of 11.73 million square meters over that at the end of 2020. The floor space of the commercial residential buildings for sale was 227.61 million square meters, an increase of 3.81 million square meters.

 

In 2021, 1.65 million housing units were started to be rebuilt in rundown urban areas nationwide and 2.05 million were basically completed. There were 0.94 million units of government-subsidized rental housing that were started to be built or made available.

 

Table 8: Main Indicators for Real Estate Development and Sales and Growth Rates in 2021

 

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase over 2020 (%)

 

 

 

 

Value of Investment

100 million RMB

147602

4.4

 Of which: residential buildings

100 million RMB

111173

6.4

Floor space of buildings under construction

10000 square meters

975387

5.2

 Of which: residential buildings

10000 square meters

690319

5.3

Floor space of buildings newly started

10000 square meters

198895

-11.4

 Of which: residential buildings

10000 square meters

146379

-10.9

Floor space of buildings completed

10000 square meters

101412

11.2

 Of which: residential buildings

10000 square meters

73016

10.8

Floor space of commercial buildings sold

10000 square meters

179433

1.9

 Of which: residential buildings

10000 square meters

156532

1.1

Funds for investment this year

100 million RMB

201132

4.2

 Of which: domestic loans

100 million RMB

23296

-12.7

       individual mortgage

100 million RMB

32388

8.0

 

 

 

 

 

VII. Foreign Economic Relations

 

The total value of imports and exports of goods in 2021 reached 39,100.9 billion yuan, up by 21.4 percent over that of the previous year. Of this total, the value of goods exported was 21,734.8 billion yuan, up by 21.2 percent; the value of goods imported was 17,366.1 billion yuan, up by 21.5 percent. The surplus of trade in goods reached 4,368.7 billion yuan, up by 734.4 billion yuan over that of the previous year. The total value of imports and exports between China and countries along the Belt and Road [44] was 11,597.9 billion yuan, an increase of 23.6 percent over that of the previous year. Of the total, the value of goods exported was 6,592.4 billion yuan, an increase of 21.5 percent; that of goods imported was 5,005.5 billion yuan, an increase of 26.4 percent.

 

Figure 16: Total Value of Imports and Exports of Goods 2017-2021

 

 

Table 9: Total Value and Growth Rates of Imports and Exports of Goods in 2021

 

Item

Value

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2020 (%)

 

 

 

Total value of imports and exports of goods

391009

21.4

 Exports

217348

21.2

  Of which: General trade

132445

24.4

        Processing trade

53378

9.9

  Of which: Mechanical and electronic products

128286

20.4

        High & new technology products

63266

17.9

 Imports

173661

21.5

  Of which: General trade

108395

25.0

        Processing trade

31601

13.3

  Of which: Mechanical and electronic products

73657

12.2

        High & new technology products

54088

14.7

 Trade surplus

43687

20.2

 

 

 

 

Table 10: Main Export Commodities in Volume and Value and the Growth Rates in 2021

 

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase over 2020 (%)

Value

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2020 (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rolled steel

10000 tons

6690

24.6

5289

67.9

Textile yarns and textile articles

9384

-12.2

Clothes and clothing accessories

11000

15.6

Footwear

10000 pairs

873231

18.1

3097

26.2

Furniture and parts

4772

18.2

Luggage and similar containers

10000 tons

244

21.4

1800

26.1

Toys

2980

28.6

Plastic articles

6397

20.5

Integrated circuits

100 million pieces

3107

19.6

9930

23.4

Automatic data processing machines and components

16488

12.9

Mobile phones

10000 sets

95420

-1.2

9447

9.3

Containers

10000 units

484

144.0

1514

198.3

Liquid crystal display panels

10000 units

142439

12.4

1788

30.5

Motor vehicles (including chassis)

10000 sets

212

95.9

2227

104.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 11: Main Import Commodities in Volume and Value and the Growth Rates in 2021

 

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase over 2020 (%)

Value

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2020 (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soybean 

10000 tons

9652

-3.8

3459

26.1

Edible vegetable oil

10000 tons

1039

-3.7

706

24.0

Iron ore and concentrate

10000 tons

112432

-3.9

11942

39.6

Coal and lignite

10000 tons

32322

6.6

2319

64.1

Crude oil

10000 tons

51298

-5.4

16618

34.4

Petroleum products refined

10000 tons

2712

-4.0

1078

31.6

Natural gas

10000 tons

12136

19.9

3601

56.3

Plastics in primary forms

10000 tons

3397

-16.4

3950

8.8

Paper pulp

10000 tons

2969

-2.7

1296

19.5

Rolled steel

10000 tons

1427

-29.5

1210

3.9

Unwrought copper and its alloys

10000 tons

553

-17.2

3387

12.5

Integrated circuits

100 million pieces

6355

16.9

27935

15.4

Motor vehicles (including chassis)

10000 sets

94

0.6

3489

7.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 12: Imports and Exports of Goods by Major Countries and Regions, the Growth Rates and Proportions in 2021

 

Country or region

Exports

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2020

(%)

Proportion of the total

(%)

Imports

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2020

 (%)

Proportion of the total

(%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ASEAN

31255

17.7

14.4

25489

22.2

14.7

European Union

33483

23.7

15.4

20028

12.1

11.5

United States

37224

19.0

17.1

11603

24.2

6.7

Japan

10722

8.5

4.9

13298

10.1

7.7

Republic of Korea

9617

23.5

4.4

13791

15.1

7.9

Hong Kong, China

22641

20.3

10.4

627

30.2

0.4

Taiwan, China

5063

21.7

2.3

16146

16.5

9.3

Brazil

3464

43.4

1.6

7138

20.3

4.1

Russia

4364

24.7

2.0

5122

28.2

2.9

India

6302

36.6

2.9

1819

25.1

1.0

South Africa

1365

29.4

0.6

2147

49.4

1.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The total value of imports and exports of services in 2021 was 5,298.3 billion yuan, up by 16.1 percent over that of the previous year. The export value of services was 2,543.5 billion yuan, up by 31.4 percent. The import value of services was 2,754.8 billion yuan, up by 4.8 percent. The trade deficit in imports and exports of services was 211.3 billion yuan.

 

The year 2021 witnessed the establishment of 47,643 enterprises with foreign direct investment (excluding banking, securities and insurance), up by 23.5 percent over that of the previous year, and the foreign direct investment actually utilized totaled 1,149.4 billion yuan, up by 14.9 percent, or 173.5 billion US dollars, up by 20.2 percent. Specifically, there were 5,336 newly established enterprises receiving direct investment from countries along the Belt and Road (including the investment in China via some free ports), up by 24.3 percent; and foreign capital directly invested in China reached 74.3 billion yuan, up by 29.4 percent, or 11.2 billion US dollars, up by 36.0 percent. In 2021, the foreign investment actually utilized by high technology industry reached 346.9 billion yuan, up by 17.1 percent, or 52.2 billion US dollars, up by 22.1 percent.

 

Table 13: Total Value of Foreign Direct Investment (Excluding Banking, Securities and Insurance) and the Growth Rates in 2021

 

Sector

Enterprises

Increase over 2020

(%)

Actually Utilized Value

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2020

 (%)

 

 

 

 

 

Total

47643

23.5

11494

14.9

Of which: Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery

491

-0.4

55

38.4

    Manufacturing

4455

19.4

2216

2.8

    Production and Supply of Electricity, Heat Power, Gas and Water

465

78.9

249

14.9

    Transport, Storage and Post

693

17.1

351

1.3

    Information Transmission, Software and Information Technology Services

4053

15.1

1345

18.8

    Wholesale and Retail

13379

23.7

1098

34.1

    Real Estate

1125

-5.5

1571

11.7

    Leasing and Business Services

9290

23.7

2193

19.3

    Services to Households, Repair and Other Services

522

16.8

31

44.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 2021, the non-financial outbound direct investment reached 733.2 billion yuan, down by 3.5 percent over that of the previous year, or 113.6 billion US dollars, up by 3.2 percent. Of this total, that to countries along the Belt and Road reached 20.3 billion US dollars, up by 14.1 percent.

 

Table 14: Total Value and Growth Rates of Non-financial Outbound Direct Investment in 2021

 

Sector

Value

(100 million US dollars)

Increase over 2020

 (%)

 

 

 

Total 

1136.4

3.2

Of which: Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery

11.3

-18.7

     Mining

49.8

-2.2

     Manufacturing

184.0

-7.9

     Production and Supply of Electricity, Heat Power, Gas and Water

48.9

75.9

     Construction

55.7

7.9

     Wholesale and Retail

176.5

9.8

     Transport, Storage and Post

51.0

92.5

     Information Transmission, Software and Information Technology Services

75.3

12.2

     Real Estate

24.9

-8.8

     Leasing and Business Services

366.2

-12.4

 

 

 

 

In 2021, the accomplished business revenue through contracted overseas engineering projects was 999.6 billion yuan, down by 7.1 percent over that of the previous year, or 154.9 billion US dollars, down by 0.6 percent. Specifically, the accomplished business revenue from countries along the Belt and Road was 89.7 billion US dollars, a decrease of 1.6 percent, accounting for 57.9 percent of the accomplished business revenue through contracted overseas engineering projects. The number of labor forces sent abroad through overseas labor contracts was 320 thousand.

 

VIII. Finance and Financial Intermediation

 

The national general public budget revenue reached 20,253.9 billion yuan in 2021, up by 10.7 percent over that of the previous year, of which tax revenue amounted to 17,273.1 billion yuan, up by 11.9 percent. The national general public budget expenditure reached 24,632.2 billion yuan, up by 0.3 percent over that of the previous year. The newly added tax and fee cuts in 2021 was around 1.1 trillion yuan.

 

Figure 17: National General Public Budget Revenue 2017-2021

 

 

Note: Data for general public budget revenue from 2017 to 2020 as shown in the figure were final accounts and that of 2021 was the executive accounts.

 

By the end of 2021, money supply of broad sense  (M2) was 238.3 trillion yuan, an increase of 9.0 percent over that by the end of the previous year. Money supply of narrow sense (M1) was 64.7 trillion yuan, up by 3.5 percent. Cash in circulation (M0was 9.1 trillion yuan, up by 7.7 percent.

 

In 2021, the aggregate financing to the real economy (AFRE) (flow) [45] reached 31.4 trillion yuan, or 3.4 trillion yuan less than that in 2020 on a comparable basis. The AFRE (stock) [46] totaled 314.1 trillion yuan at the end of 2021, up by 10.3 percent over that at the end of 2020 on a comparable basis. Specifically, loans granted to the real economy in Renminbi stood at 191.5 trillion yuan, up by 11.6 percent. Savings deposit in Renminbi and foreign currencies in all items of financial institutions totaled 238.6 trillion yuan at the end of 2021, an increase of 20.2 trillion yuan compared with that at the beginning of the year. Of this total, the savings deposit in Renminbi stood at 232.3 trillion yuan, an increase of 19.7 trillion yuan. Loans in Renminbi and foreign currencies in all items of financial institutions reached 198.5 trillion yuan, an increase of 20.1 trillion yuan. Of this total, loans in Renminbi were 192.7 trillion yuan, an increase of 19.9 trillion yuan. Inclusive finance loans in Renminbi [47] reached 26.5 trillion yuan, an increase of 5.0 trillion yuan.

 

Table 15: Savings Deposit and Loans in RMB and Foreign Currencies in All Financial Institutions and Growth Rates at the End of 2021

 

Item

Year-end figure

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2020 (%)

 

 

 

Savings deposit

2386062

9.3

 Domestic households

1033118

10.6

   Deposits in RMB

1025012

10.7

 Domestic non-financial enterprises

730137

6.1

Loans

1985108

11.3

 Domestic short-term loans

520506

5.7

 Domestic medium- and long-term loans

1291149

13.5

 

 

 

 

Loans in Renminbi from rural financial institutions (rural credit cooperatives, rural cooperation banks and rural commercial banks) totaled 24,249.6 billion yuan by the end of 2021, an increase of 2,660.7 billion yuan as compared with that at the beginning of the year. Loans in Renminbi for consumption use from all financial institutions totaled 54,884.9 billion yuan, an increase of 5,318.1 billion yuan. Of the total, short-term personal loans totaled 9,355.8 billion yuan, an increase of 608.0 billion yuan, and medium- and long-term personal loans reached 45,529.2 billion yuan, an increase of 4,710.1 billion yuan.

 

Funds raised through A-shares issued on Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges [48] amounted to 1,674.3 billion yuan in 2021, an increase of 132.6 billion yuan from the previous year. 481 A-shares were newly issued on Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges, raising 535.1 billion yuan worth of capital altogether, up by 60.9 billion yuan over that of the previous year. Of the total, 162 shares were from the science and technology innovation board, raising 202.9 billion yuan; refinancing of A-shares on Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges (including public newly issued, targeted placement, right issued, preferred stock and exchanged convertible bonds) raised 1,139.1 billion yuan, an increase of 71.7 billion yuan over that of the previous year. 11 shares were publicly issued on Beijing Stock Exchanges, raising [49] 2.1 billion yuan. Various types of market entities financed 8,655.3 billion yuan through issuing bonds (including corporate bonds, convertible bonds, exchangeable bonds, financial bonds issued by policy banks, local government bonds and asset-backed securities) on Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges, up by 177.6 billion yuan over that of the previous year. There were 6,932 companies listed on National Equities Exchange and Quotations [50] and funds raised by listed companies reached 26.0 billion yuan in 2021.

 

In 2021, the issuance of corporate credit bonds [51] reached 14.7 trillion yuan, an increase of 0.5 trillion yuan over that of the previous year.

 

The premium of primary insurance received by the insurance companies [52] totaled 4,490.0 billion yuan in 2021, up by 4.0 percent over that of the previous year on a comparable basis. Of this total, life insurance premium of primary insurance amounted to 2,357.2 billion yuan, health and casualty insurance premium of primary insurance 965.7 billion yuan, and property insurance premium of primary insurance 1,167.1 billion yuan. Insurance companies paid an indemnity worth of 1,560.9 billion yuan, of which life insurance indemnity was 354.0 billion yuan, health and casualty insurance indemnity 438.1 billion yuan, and property insurance indemnity 768.7 billion yuan.

 

IX. Households Income and Consumption and Social Security

 

In 2021, the per capita disposable income nationwide was 35,128 yuan, an increase of 9.1 percent over that of the previous year or a real increase of 8.1 percent after deducting price factors. The median [53] of per capita disposable income nationwide was 29,975 yuan, up by 8.8 percent. In terms of usual residence, the per capita disposable income of urban households was 47,412 yuan, up by 8.2 percent over that of 2020, or a real growth of 7.1 percent after deducting price factors. The median of per capita disposable income of urban households was 43,504 yuan, up by 7.7 percent. The per capita disposable income of rural households was 18,931 yuan, up by 10.5 percent over that of the previous year, or 9.7 percent in real terms after deducting price factors. The median of per capita disposable income of rural households was 16,902 yuan, up by 11.2 percent. The urban-rural per capita disposable income ratio was 2.50, narrowed by 0.06 over that of the previous year. Grouped by income quintile [54], the per capita disposable income of low-income group reached 8,333 yuan, the lower-middle-income group 18,445 yuan, the middle-income group 29,053 yuan, the upper-middle-income group 44,949 yuan and the high-income group 85,836 yuan. The per capita monthly income of migrant workers was 4,432 yuan, increased by 8.8 percent over that of the previous year. In 2021, the per capita disposable income of rural households from counties lifted out of poverty [55] was 14,051 yuan, up by 11.6 percent over that of 2020, or a real growth of 10.8 percent after deducting price factors.

 

The national per capita consumption expenditure was 24,100 yuan, up by 13.6 percent over that of the previous year, or a real increase of 12.6 percent after deducting price factors. Specifically, the per capita consumption expenditure on services [56] totaled 10,645 yuan, up by 17.8 percent over that of the previous year, accounting for 44.2 percent of the per capita consumption expenditure. In terms of usual residence, the per capita consumption expenditure of urban households was 30,307 yuan, up by 12.2 percent, or 11.1 percent in real terms after deducting price factors. The per capita consumption expenditure of rural households was 15,916 yuan, up by 16.1 percent, or a real increase of 15.3 percent after deducting price factors. The national Engel’s Coefficient stood at 29.8 percent, with that of urban and rural households standing at 28.6 percent and 32.7 percent respectively.

 

Figure 18: National Per Capita Disposable Income and Its Growth Rates 2017-2021

 

 

Figure 19: National Per Capita Consumption Expenditure and Composition in 2021

 

 

By the end of 2021, a total of 480.75 million people participated in basic endowment insurance program for urban workers, an increase of 24.54 million over that by the end of 2020. A total of 547.97 million people participated in basic endowment insurance program for urban and rural residents, an increase of 5.54 million. A total of 1,364.24 million people participated in basic medical insurance program, an increase of 2.93 million. Of this total, 354.22 million people participated in the program for workers, an increase of 9.67 million, and 1,010.02 million people participated in the program for urban and rural residents. A total of 229.58 million people participated in unemployment insurance program, an increase of 12.68 million. The number of people receiving unemployment insurance payment stood at 2.59 million by the end of 2021. A total of 282.84 million people participated in work-related injury insurance, an increase of 15.21 million, of which 90.86 million were migrant workers, an increase of 1.52 million. A total of 238.51 million people participated in maternity insurance programs, an increase of 2.83 million. By the end of 2021, minimum living allowances were granted to 7.38 million urban residents and 34.74 million rural residents, and 4.38 million rural residents living in extreme poverty [57] received relief and assistance and 10.89 million people received temporary assistance [58]. National subsidies and allowances were provided to 8.17 million veterans and other entitled people in 2021.

 

By the end of 2021, there were altogether 43 thousand social welfare institutions providing accommodation, of which 40 thousand were elderly care institutions and 801 were institutions for child welfare, assistance and protection. The social welfare institutions provided 8.402 million beds [59], of which 8.135 million were for the elderly and 96 thousand were for children. By the end of 2021, there were 29 thousand community service centers and 472 thousand community service stations.

 

X. Science & Technology and Education

 

Expenditures on research and experimental development activities (R&D) were worth 2,786.4 billion yuan in 2021, up by 14.2 percent over that of 2020, accounting for 2.44 percent of GDP. Of this total, 169.6 billion yuan was used for basic research programs. A total of 48,700 projects were financed by the National Natural Science Foundation. By the end of 2021, there were altogether 533 state key laboratories in operation, 191 national engineering research centers under the new sequence management, 1,636 state-level enterprise technology centers and 212 demonstration centers for business startups and innovation. The National Fund for Technology Transfer and Commercialization established 36 sub-funds, with the total funds reaching 62.4 billion yuan. There were 1,287 state-level technology business incubators [60], and 2,551 national mass makerspaces [61]. A total of 4,601 thousand patents were authorized, up by 26.4 percent over that of the previous year. The number of PCT patent applications accepted [62] was 73 thousand. By the end of 2021, the number of valid patents was 15,421 thousand, of which 2,704 thousand were domestic valid invention patents. The number of high-value invention patents per 10,000 people [63] was 7.5. Trademark registration totaled 7,739 thousand, up by 34.3 percent over that of the previous year. A total of 670 thousand technology transfer contracts were signed, representing 3,729.4 billion yuan in value, up by 32.0 percent over that of the previous year.

 

Figure 20: The Expenditure on Research and Experimental Development Activities (R&D) and Its Growth Rates

2017-2021

 

 

Table 16: Number of Patents Authorized and Valid Patents in 2021

 

Item

Patents

(10,000)

Increase over 2020 (%)

 

 

 

Number of patents authorized

460.1

26.4

 Of which: domestic

445.1

27.0

 Of which: for  invention patents

69.6

31.3

   Of which: domestic

57.8

33.2

Number of valid patents at the end of the year

1542.1

26.5

 Of which: domestic

1429.5

28.6

 Of which: for  invention patents

359.7

17.6

   Of which: domestic

270.4

22.2

 

 

 

 

The year 2021 saw a total of 52 successful space launches. Tianwen-1 probe successfully landed on Mars and Zhurong Mars rover reached the Mars surface. Chinese entered their own space station for the first time by the successful launch of the core module Tianhe and the accomplishment of missions including launches of Shenzhou-12 and Shenzhou-13. The solar observation satellite Xihe was successfully launched. With the successful development of Zuchongzhi 2.1 and Jiuzhang 2.0, China has achieved a quantum computational advantage in two mainstream technical routes of superconducting quantum and photonics quantum. The deep-sea unmanned submersible Haidou-1 broke a number of world records. Hualong-1 nuclear reactor using domestically-designed third-generation nuclear power technology was put into commercial operation.

 

By the end of 2021, there were altogether 869 national quality inspection centers. There were 932 agencies for product quality and management system and service certification, accumulatively 870,000 enterprises were certified. A total of 2,815 national standards were developed or revised in the year, including 1,900 new standards. The qualification rate of manufactured products [64] reached 93.08 percent.

 

In 2021, graduate institutes enrolled 3.332 million students with 1.177 million new students and 0.773 million graduates. Total enrollment in undergraduate programs in regular and vocational higher education institutes [65] was 34.961 million students with 10.013 million new students and 8.265 million graduates. The enrollment in secondary vocational education [66] was 17.385 million, including 6.562 million new entrants, and 4.841 million graduates. Regular senior secondary schools had 26.050 million enrolled students, including 9.050 million new entrants, and 7.802 million graduates. Students enrolled in junior secondary schools totaled 50.184 million, including 17.054 million new entrants, and 15.871 million graduates. The country had a primary education enrollment of 107.799 million students, including 17.826 million new entrants, and 17.180 million graduates. There were 0.920 million students enrolled in special education schools, with 0.149 million new entrants and 0.146 million graduates. Kindergartens accommodated 48.052 million children. The number of students graduating from compulsory education reached 95.4 percent of the total enrollment, and the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education reached 91.4 percent.

 

Figure 21: Enrollment in Education 2017-2021

 

 

XI. Culture and Tourism, Public Health and Sports

 

By the end of 2021, there were 2,044 art-performing groups and 3,671 museums in the culture and tourism system throughout China. A total of 3,217 public libraries received [67] 728.98 million people. There were 3,317 cultural centers. Subscribers to cable television programs numbered 201 million, among which 195 million subscribed to digital cable television programs. By the end of 2021, radio broadcasting and television broadcasting coverage rates were 99.5 percent and 99.7 percent respectively. A total of 6,736 episodes of 194 TV series and 78,372 minutes of TV cartoons were made in 2021. The country produced 565 feature movies and 175 popular science movies, documentaries, animation and special movies [68]. A total of 27.6 billion copies of newspapers and 2.0 billion copies of magazines were issued, and 11.0 billion copies of books were published. The average number of books possessed per person [69] was 7.76 copies. By the end of the year, there were 4,233 archives in China and 189.31 million files were made accessible to the public. The business revenue of enterprises above the designated size engaged in culture and related industries reached 11,906.4 billion yuan, up by 16.0 percent over that of the previous year on a comparable basis.

 

The year 2021 registered 3.25 billion domestic tourists, up by 12.8 percent over that of the previous year. Of this total, there were 2.34 billion tourists from urban areas, an increase of 13.4 percent; and 900 million tourists from rural areas, an increase of 11.1 percent. Domestic tourism revenue was 2,919.1 billion yuan, up by 31.0 percent. Of this total, tourists from urban areas spent 2,364.4 billion yuan, up by 31.6 percent; and tourists from rural areas spent 554.7 billion yuan, up by 28.4 percent.

 

Figure 22: The Person-times of Domestic Tourists and Its Growth Rates 2017-2021

 

 

By the end of 2021, there were 1,031,000 medical and health institutions in China, including 37,000 hospitals. Of all the hospitals, 12,000 were public, and 25,000 were private. Of the 977,000 medical and health institutions at grass-root level, there were 35,000 town and township health centers, 36,000 community health service centers, 307,000 clinics and 599,000 village clinics. Of the 13,000 professional public health institutions, 3,380 were disease control and prevention centers and 2,790 were health monitoring institutions. By the end of 2021, there were 11.23 million medical technical personnel in China, including 4.27 million licensed doctors and licensed assistant doctors and 5.02 million registered nurses. The medical and health institutions in China possessed 9.57 million beds, of which hospitals possessed 7.48 million and township health centers had 1.44 million. The total number of medical visits [70] and hospital discharges [71] in 2021 reached 8.53 billion and 240 million respectively. By the end of 2021, a total of 102,314 confirmed cases of COVID-19 had been reported nationwide, 94,792 infected had been cured and discharged from hospital, and 4,636 people died. A total of 2,835.33 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered nationwide. A total of 11,937 medical and health institutions across the country provided nucleic acid testing services, with daily nucleic acid testing capacity reached 41.68 million.

 

Figure 23: Year-end Number of Medical Technical Personnel 2017-2021

 

 

There were altogether 3.971 million sports venues [72]. The sports venue area [73] totaled 3.41 billion square meters and the per capita sports venue area was 2.41 square meters. In 2021, Chinese athletes won 67 world championships in 16 sports events and broke 12 world records. At the 32nd Olympic Games, Chinese athletes won 38 gold medals and a total of 88 medals, ranking the second in the Olympic gold medal tally and overall medal count. Chinese physically-challenged athletes won 110 world championships in 5 international sports competitions. At the 16th Paralympic Games, Chinese athletes won 96 gold medals and a total of 207 medals, topped the gold medal tally and overall medal count for the fifth consecutive time.

 

XII. Resources, Environment and Emergency Management

 

In 2021, the total supply of state-owned land for construction use [74] was 690 thousand hectares, an increase of 4.8 percent over that of the previous year. Of this total, the land supply for industry, mining and warehousing was 175 thousand hectares, up by 4.9 percent; that for real estate [75] was 136 thousand hectares, down by 12.2 percent; and that for infrastructure facilities was 379 thousand hectares, up by 12.7 percent.

 

The total stock of water resources in 2021 was 2,952.0 billion cubic meters. With an increase of 1.9 percent over 2020, the total water consumption reached 592.1 billion cubic meters, of which water consumption for living purposes up by 5.3 percent, for industrial use up by 2.0 percent, for agricultural use up by 0.9 percent, and artificial recharge for environmental and ecological use grew by 2.9 percent. Water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP [76] was 54 cubic meters, a decline of 5.8 percent over that of the previous year. Water consumption per 10,000 yuan of industrial value added was 31 cubic meters, down by 7.0 percent. Per capita water consumption was 419 cubic meters, up by 1.8 percent over that of the previous year.

 

In 2021, the total area of afforestation reached 3.60 million hectares, of which 1.34 million hectares were afforested by manpower, accounting for 37.1 percent of the total. The land area improved by grass plantation [77] was 3.07 million hectares. By the end of 2021, there were 474 national natural reserves and 5 national parks. A total of 62 thousand square kilometers of land have been saved from soil erosion.

 

Preliminary estimation indicated that the total energy consumption in 2021 amounted to 5.24 billion tons of standard coal equivalent, up by 5.2 percent over that of 2020. The consumption of coal increased by 4.6 percent; crude oil, up by 4.1 percent; natural gas, up by 12.5 percent; and electric power, up by 10.3 percent. The consumption of coal accounted for 56.0 percent of the total energy consumption, 0.9 percentage point lower than that of 2020, while clean energy consumption, such as natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, wind power and solar power accounted for 25.5 percent, 1.2 percentage points higher. The comprehensive energy consumption per unit calcium carbide by key energy-intensive industrial enterprises went down by 5.3 percent, per unit synthetic ammonia was the same as that of last year, per ton steel down by 0.4 percent and per unit electrolytic aluminium down by 2.1 percent. The standard coal consumption per kilowatt-hour of thermal power generation decreased by 0.5 percent. The carbon dioxide emission per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP [78] was cut by 3.8 percent.

 

Figure 24: The Proportion of Clean Energy Consumption in the Total Energy Consumption 2017-2021

 

 

Area of offshore oceanic water [79] met the national quality standard Grade I and II accounted for 81.3 percent; that met Grade III standard 5.2 percent; and water of Grade IV or inferior quality 13.5 percent.

 

Of the 324 cities subject to urban regional daytime acoustic environment monitoring, 4.9 percent enjoyed excellent environment, 61.7 percent had good environment, 31.5 percent had average environment, and 1.9 percent had poor environment in 2021.

 

The average temperature in 2021 was 10.53, up by 0.28 compared with that of the previous year. Typhoons hit China 5 times in 2021.

 

In 2021, natural disasters hit 11.74 million hectares of crops, of which 1.63 million hectares of crops were demolished. Flood, waterlogging and geological disasters caused a direct economic loss of 247.7 billion yuan. Droughts caused a direct economic loss of 20.1 billion yuan. Disasters caused by low temperature, frost and snow made a total direct economic loss of 13.3 billion yuan. Oceanic disasters caused a direct economic loss of 3.0 billion yuan. The country recorded 20 earthquakes with magnitude 5.0 and over, causing a direct economic loss about 10.7 billion yuan. The year 2021 witnessed 616 forest fires, with 4 thousand hectares of forests damaged.

 

The death toll due to work accidents amounted to 26,307 people. Work accidents in industrial, mining and commercial companies caused 1.374 deaths out of every 100 thousand employees, up by 5.6 percent over that of 2020. The death toll for one million tons of coal produced in coalmines was 0.045 people, down by 23.7 percent. The road traffic death toll per 10 thousand vehicles was 1.57 people, down by 5.4 percent.

 

Notes:

 

1. All figures in this Communiqué are preliminary statistics. Statistics in this Communiqué do not include Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan Province. Due to the rounding-off reasons, the subentries may not add up to the aggregate totals.

 

2. Gross domestic product (GDP), value added of the three and related industries, regional GDP, per capita GDP and gross national income (GNI) as quoted in this Communiqué are calculated at current prices whereas their growth rates are at constant prices.

 

3. The average two-year growth is the geometric mean of the growth with the data of the same period in 2019 as the base.

 

4. Gross national income, also known as gross national product, refers to the total primary distribution of the income created by all the resident units of a country (or a region) during a certain period of time. It equals to gross domestic product plus the net primary distribution of income from abroad.

 

5. The overall labor productivity refers to the ratio between the GDP (at 2020 constant prices) and the total number of persons employed. Historical data were revised according to the results of the Seventh National Population Census.

 

6. See note 5.

 

7. The national population refers to the population of the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government and servicemen of the Chinese mainland, excluding residents of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and foreigners living in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government.

 

8. Population who live in places other than their household registration areas refers to those who reside in areas other than their household registration and have been away from there for over 6 months.

 

9. Floating population refers to population who live in places other than their household registration excluding those with current residences different from the places of their household registration but still in the same city. Population who live in places other than their household registration but still in the same city refers to those whose current residences are different from the registered towns or streets in the same district or in different districts but still in the same municipality or prefecture-level city.

 

10. By the end of 2021, the population aged 0 to 14 (under the age of 15) was 246.78 million and that aged 15 to 59 (under the age of 60) was 898.46 million.

 

11. The number of migrant workers includes those who are employed outside their villages and towns for more than six months in the year and those who are engaged in non-agricultural work in their villages and towns for more than six months in the year.

 

12. The producer prices for farm products refer to the prices of farm products sold directly by producers.

 

13. The prices for residence include prices for rent, maintenance and management, water, electricity and fuel etc.

 

14. High technology manufacturing industry includes manufacture of medicine, manufacture of aerospace vehicle and equipment, manufacture of electronic and communication equipment, manufacture of computers and office equipment, manufacture of medical equipment, manufacture of measuring instrument and equipment and manufacture of optical and photographic equipment.

 

15. Manufacture of equipment includes manufacture of metal products, general purpose equipment, special purpose equipment, automobiles, railway, ship, aerospace and other transport equipment, electrical machinery and apparatus, computers, communication and other electric equipment and measuring instrument and machinery.

 

16. Service enterprises above the designated size refer to legal entities of transport, storage and post, information transmission, software and information technology services, water conservancy, environment and public facilities management, and health with annual business revenue of 20 million yuan and above; legal entities of real estate (excluding real estate development and operation), leasing and business services, scientific research and technology services and education with annual business revenue of 10 million yuan and above; and legal entities of services to households, repair and other services and culture, sports and entertainment, and social services with annual business revenue of 5 million and above.

 

17. Strategic emerging service industries refer to the related service sectors of information technology of new generation, manufacture of high-end equipment, new materials, biotech, new energy vehicles, new energy, energy-saving and environmental protection and digital creative industries, and service industries related to new technology, innovation and entrepreneurship. The growth rate of the business revenue of the strategic emerging service industries in 2021 was calculated on a comparable basis.

 

18. Investment in high technology industries refers to investment in six high technology manufacturing industries, including the manufacture of medicine and manufacture of aerospace vehicle and equipment, and nine high technology service industries, including information service and e-commerce service.

 

19. Online retail sales refer to the retail sales of goods and services realized through internet trading platforms (online platforms mainly in trading physical commodities, including self-built websites and third-party platforms).

 

20. The eastern areas include 10 provinces and municipalities: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong and Hainan; the central areas cover 6 provinces: Shanxi, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei and Hunan; the western areas include 12 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang; the northeastern areas include 3 provinces: Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang.

 

21. The year-end urbanization rates of permanent residents from 2017 to 2019 were revised according to the results of the Seventh National Population Census.

 

22. The energy consumption per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP is calculated at 2020 constant prices.

 

23. Output data of some products were verified and adjusted in 2020; the growth rates of output in 2021 were calculated on a comparable basis.

 

24. Thermal power refers to electricity generated by coal, oil, gas, residual heat, pressure and gas, waste incineration and biomass.

 

25. The data included the steel reprocessed among enterprises.

 

26. A few installed power generation capacity (e.g. geothermal) is not listed.

 

27. The growth rates and rate changes of financial indicators of industrial enterprises above the designated size in 2021 were calculated on a comparable basis due to adjustments of data coverage in the statistical programmes, statistical law enforcement and removal of duplicated data.

 

28. Capacity utilization rate refers to the ratio of the actual production to the production capacity (in terms of value). Actual production refers to the total industrial output value during the enterprise’s reporting period. Production capacity refers to the production which can be realized and sustained for a long term under the condition of the supply of labor force, materials, fuel and transportation guaranteed and the production equipment in proper operation. 

 

29. The total freight traffic and flows include the traffic and flows by railways, highways, waterways, civil aviation and pipelines and the growth rates in 2021 were calculated on a comparable basis.

 

30. The turnover of post services was calculated at the constant prices of 2020.

 

31. The turnover of telecommunication services was calculated at the constant prices of 2020.

 

32. The number of mobile phone base stations refers to the total number of wireless transceivers serving communities that handle the wireless communication between the base stations and mobile stations, relay between the mobile switchboards and mobile stations, and monitor the quality of wireless transmission at the end of the reporting period.  

 

33. Fixed broadband internet users refer to those who subscribed to the telecommunication enterprises and access the Internet through xDSL, FTTx+LAN, FTTH/0 and other broadband access ways as well as general dedicated lines at the end of the reporting period.

 

34. Fixed fiber-optic broadband internet users refer to those who subscribed to the telecommunication enterprises and access the Internet through FTTH or FTT0 at the end of the reporting period.

 

35. Users of cellular internet of things terminals refer to those who access the mobile internet and subscribe to the internet of things services at the end of the reporting period. Internet of things terminals refers to the internet of things devices that connect the sensing network layer and the transmission network layer to implement remote data collection and data transmission to the network layer.

 

36. The number of mobile internet surfers refers to the number of people who have accessed the internet through mobile phones over the past half year.

 

37. Software and information technology services industry includes software development, integrated circuit design, information system integration and internet of things technology services, operation maintenance services, information processing and storage support services, IT consulting services, digital content services and other IT services industry.

 

38. The figure of the investment in fixed assets in 2020 was revised according to the statistical survey method reform and programmes. The growth rates in 2021 were calculated on a comparable basis.

 

39. See Note 20.

 

40. Private investment in fixed assets refers to investment in the construction or purchase of fixed assets by domestic collective, private and individual-owned enterprises and organizations or their holding enterprises (including absolute holding and relative holding enterprises).

 

41. Investment in infrastructure includes investment in transportation, postal service, telecommunication, radio, TV and satellite transmission, internet and related services, water conservancy, environment and public facilities management.

 

42. Investment in social sector includes investment in education, heath and social services, culture, sports and recreation.

 

43. The investment in real estate includes the investment in real estate development, construction of buildings for own use, property management, intermediary services and other real estate investment.

 

44. The Belt and Road refers to the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road.

 

45. The AFRE (flow) refers to the total volume of financing provided by the financial system to the real economy within a certain period of time.

 

46. The AFRE (stock) refers to the outstanding financing provided by the financial system to the real economy at the end of a period of time (a month, a quarter or a year).

 

47. Inclusive finance loans include loans to micro and small businesses with single-client credit line under 10 million yuan, operating loans to self-employed businesses and owners of micro and small businesses, producing and operating loans to farmers, consumption loans to registered people living in poverty, venture guarantee loans and student loans.

 

48. Funds raised through Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are calculated by the money raised on the listing date, and the funds raised include the actual exchanged convertible bonds, which were 119.5 billion yuan in 2020 and 134.2 billion yuan in 2021.

 

49. Funds raised through Beijing Stock Exchanges are calculated by the money raised on the listing date. The funds raised only include those by newly-listed companies since the opening of the Beijing Stock Exchanges. Historical data of funds raised by Select Tier companies transferred to the Beijing Stock Exchange remained in the statistical form of the National Equities Exchange and Quotations.

 

50. National Equities Exchange and Quotations, also called “the New Over-the-Counter Market”, is a national securities exchange established upon approval by the State Council in 2012. Preferred stocks were excluded from funds raised by listed companies in National Equities Exchange and Quotations. Funds raised by shares are calculated by the disclosure date of the issurance report.

 

51. Corporate credit bonds include debt financing instruments issued by non-financial businesses, enterprise bonds, corporate bonds and convertible bonds.

 

52. The premium of primary insurance received by the insurance companies refers to the premium income from primary insurance contracts confirmed by the insurance companies.

 

53. The median of per capita income refers to the per capita income of household lied in the middle of all surveyed households which are ranked from low to high (or high to low) based on per capita income level.

 

54. The income quintile refers to the five equal partitions of all surveyed households, who are ranked from low to high based on per capita income level. The top 20 percent with the highest income are classified as high-income group, and the other four levels are upper-middle-income group, middle-income group, lower-middle-income group and low-income group.

 

55. Counties lifted out of poverty include 832 key counties under the national poverty alleviation and development program and counties in contiguous poor areas as well as 7 cities and counties in Aksu prefecture, Xinjiang.

 

56. The consumption expenditure on services refers to the spending by households on services for daily lives including catering, education, culture and recreation and medical services.

 

57. Rural residents living in extreme poverty refer to the aged, the disabled and the minor under 16 years of age in rural areas who have no ability to work, no sources of income and no statutory obligors to provide for them, bring them up or support them, or whose statutory obligors have no ability to fulfill their obligations.

 

58. Temporary assistance refers to emergent and transitional assistance the government provides to families or individuals who experience hardships because of emergencies, unexpected harm, major diseases or other unusual factors and are not covered by other forms of social assistance programs or still suffer hardships after receiving other social assistance programs.

 

59. The beds provided by social welfare institutions include beds provided by adoption agencies, aid agencies and community agencies.

 

60. The state-level technology business incubators are technology-based business startup service providers consistent with the Administrative Measures for Technology Business Incubators that provide physical space, shared facilities and professional services with the mission of advancing transformation of technological achievements, cultivating technological enterprises and fostering the entrepreneurial spirit. They should be approved and accredited by the Ministry of Science and Technology.

 

61. The national mass makerspaces are new service platform for entrepreneurship and innovation that are in conformity with the Guidelines on Developing Mass Makerspaces and are reviewed and registered by the Ministry of Science and Technology in accordance with the Provisional Registration Regulations on National Mass Makerspaces.

 

62. The number of PCT patent applications accepted refers to the number of PCT patent application accepted by the State Intellectual Property Office which acts as the receiving office of PCT patent application. PCT is the abbreviation of Patent Cooperation Treaty, which is a treaty for international cooperation in the field of patents.

 

63. The number of high-value invention patents per 10,000 people refers to the number of valid invention patents owned per 10,000 national residents which are authorized by the China National Intellectual Property Administration and satisfy any of the following conditions: invention patents for strategic emerging industries; invention patents having corresponding foreign patents; invention patents maintained more than 10 years; invention patents with a relatively high pledge financing amount; and invention patents that won the National Science and Technology Award and the China Patent Award.

 

64. The qualification rate of manufactured products is the ratio of the samples that have passed the sampling quality test, the process of which follows certain methods, procedure and standard, to the total amount of the sampled products. The survey samples cover 29 sectors of the manufacturing industry.

 

65. Regular and vocational higher education institutes include regular universities, vocational undergraduate  education and higher vocational colleges. The statistical coverage of the enrollment of higher vocational colleges in 2021 changed to include students transferred from a five-year secondary vocational education.

 

66. Secondary vocational education includes regular specialized secondary schools, adult specialized secondary schools, vocational high schools and skilled workers schools.

 

67. The people received by the public libraries refer to the number of people who visit libraries and use library services in the year, including borrowing and reading books, consultation and attending readers’ programs.

 

68. Special movies refer to those using different display modes in terms of projection techniques, equipment and program as compared with the ordinary cinemas, such as IMAX movies, 3D movies, 4D movies, multidimensional movies and full dome movies.

 

69. The average number of books possessed per person refers to the average number of books published in the year that can be possessed per person in China.

 

70. The total number of medical visits refers to the number of people receiving medical services, including outpatient services, emergency treatment, home visits, appointment-based diagnosis and treatment, health check-up of a specific item, and health consultation and guidance (excluding health lectures and nucleic acid tests).

 

71. The number of hospital discharges refers to the number of inpatients discharged from hospitals in the reporting period, including those who are discharged from hospitals or transferred to other medical institutions following doctors’ advice, discharged from hospitals without doctors’ permission, dead or other situations. The number of people who are recovered from family sickbeds is excluded.

 

72. The sports venues belonging to armed forces and railway system are excluded in the census on sports venues.

 

73. The sports venue area refers to area used for physical training, sports competitions and physical fitness.

 

74. Total supply of state-owned land for construction use refers to the total amount of state-owned land for construction use with the land-use right transferred, allocated or leased to units or individuals through signed transaction contracts and allocation decisions by the municipal or county governments according to annual land supply plan and in line with relevant laws in the reporting period.

 

75. Land used for real estate refers to the sum of land used for commercial service and for residence.

 

76. The water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP and water consumption per 10,000 yuan of industrial value added are calculated at prices of 2020.

 

77. The land area improved by grass plantation refers to the area of increased forage grass by adopting measures such as sowing and cultivation plus the area where primitive vegetation and the ecology of grasslands have been improved by measures such as restraining the content of salt, alkali and sand, improving the quality of soil and fencing the forests.

 

78. The carbon dioxide emission per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP is calculated at prices of 2020.

 

79. Offshore oceanic water quality is evaluated by the area method.

 

Data Sources:

 

In this Communiqué, data of newly increased employed people in urban areas, registered unemployment rate in urban areas, social security, unemployment insurance, work injury insurance and skilled workers schools are from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security; data of foreign exchange reserves and exchange rates are from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange; data of market entities, quality inspection, the formulation and revision of national standards and qualification rate of manufactured products are from the State Administration for Market Regulation; data of environment monitoring are from the Ministry of Ecology and Environment; data of output of aquatic products and area of farmland newly equipped with effective water-saving irrigation systems are from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs; data of production of timber, area of afforestation, area of grass planting and improvement, national natural reserves and national parks are from the National Forestry and Grassland Administration; data of area of farmland newly equipped with irrigation system, water resources, water consumption and land newly saved from soil erosion are from the Ministry of Water Resources; data of installed power generation capacity, new power transformer equipment with a capacity of 220 kilovolts and above and electricity consumption are from the China Electricity Council; data of volume of freight handled by ports, container shipping of ports, highway transportation, waterway transportation, new and rebuilt highways and new throughput capacity of berths for over 10,000-tonnage ships are from the Ministry of Transport; data of railway transportation, new railways put into operation, new double-track railways put into operation and electrified railways put into operation are from China Railway; data of civil aviation and new civil transportation airports are from the Civil Aviation Administration of China; data of pipeline transportation are from China National Petroleum Cooperation, China Petrochemical Cooperation, China National Offshore Oil Cooperation and China Oil & Gas Piping Network Cooperation; data of motor vehicles for civilian use and traffic accidents are from the Ministry of Public Security; data of postal service are from the State Post Bureau; data of telecommunication, software revenue, and new lines of optical-fiber cables are from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology; data of internet users and internet coverage are from China Internet Network Information Center; data of housing units rebuilt or renovated in rundown urban areas and government-subsidized rental housing are from the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development; data of imports and exports of goods are from the General Administration of Customs; data of imports and exports of services, foreign direct investment, outbound direct investment, overseas contracted projects and overseas labor contracts are from the Ministry of Commerce; data of finance are from the Ministry of Finance; data of newly added tax and fee cuts are from the State Taxation Administration; data of monetary finance and corporate credit bonds are from the People’s Bank of China; data of funds raised through domestic exchange markets are from China Securities Regulatory Commission; data of the insurance sector are from China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission; data of medical insurance and maternity insurance are from the National Healthcare and Security Administration; data of urban and rural minimum living allowances, relief and assistance granted to rural residents living in extreme poverty, temporary assistance and social welfare are from the Ministry of Civil Affairs; data of entitled people are from the Ministry of Veterans Affairs; data of natural science foundation projects are from the National Natural Science Foundation; data of state key laboratories, National Fund for Technology Transfer and Commercialization, state-level technology business incubators, national mass makerspaces and technology transfer contracts are from the Ministry of Science and Technology; data of national engineering research centers, enterprise technical centers and demonstration centers for business startups and innovation are from the National Development and Reform Commission; data of patents and trademarks are from the National Intellectual Property Administration; data of satellite launches are from the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense; data of education are from the Ministry of Education; data of art-performing groups, museums, public libraries, cultural centers and tourism are from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism; data of television and radio programs are from the National Radio and Television Administration; data of movies are from the China Film Administration; data of newspapers, magazines and books are from the National Press and Publication Administration; data of files are from the State Archives Administration; data of medical care and health are from the National Health Commission; data of sports are from the General Administration of Sport; data of physically-challenged athletes are from the China Disabled Persons’ Federation; data of supply of state-owned land for construction use and direct economic loss caused by oceanic disasters are from the Ministry of Natural Resources; data of average temperature and typhoons are from the China Meteorological Administration; data of areas of crops hit by natural disasters, direct economic loss caused by flood, waterlogging and geological disasters, direct economic loss caused by droughts, direct economic loss caused by low temperature, frost and snow, the number of earthquakes, direct economic loss caused by earthquakes, forest fires, areas of forests damaged and workplace accidents are from the Ministry of Emergency Management; all the other data are from the National Bureau of Statistics.

 

In case of any differences between English translation and the original Chinese text, the Chinese edition shall prevail.

 

Annex
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