Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2020 National Economic and Social Development
National Bureau of Statistics of China2021-02-28 09:30




STATISTICAL COMMUNIQUÉ OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

ON THE 2020 NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT[1]

 

National Bureau of Statistics of China

February 28, 2021

 

The year of 2020 was an unusual year in the history of the People’s Republic of China, as the country faces complicated international situations, arduous tasks in seeking reform, development and stability at home and heavy blows from the COVID-19 epidemic in particular. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core made the overall planning, maintained strategic focus, made accurate judgement on situations and well-planned deployment, took decisive actions, paid arduous efforts, and made major and timely decisions on coordinating efforts to advance both the epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, all regions and departments fully implemented the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the CPC and the second, third, fourth and fifth plenary sessions of the 19th Central Committee of the CPC, followed the decisions and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, responded to the risks and challenges composedly, committed unswervingly to the high-quality development, and coordinated efforts to advance both the epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development. All regions and departments took solid steps to stabilize employment, financial operation, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment and market expectations (six areas), and fully safeguarded employment, basic living needs, operation of market entities, food and energy security, stable industrial and supply chains and the normal functioning of primary-level governments (six fronts). As a result, the economy recovered to normal quarter by quarter, making China the only major economy with positive economic growth in the world. With a complete victory in the fight of poverty reduction and great decisive accomplishments in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, China has made historic achievements that have satisfied the people and impressed the world.

 

I. General Outlook[2]

 

According to preliminary estimation, the gross domestic product (GDP) [3] in 2020 was 101,598.6 billion yuan, up by 2.3 percent over the previous year. Of this total, the value added of the primary industry was 7,775.4 billion yuan, up by 3.0 percent, that of the secondary industry was 38,425.5 billion yuan, up by 2.6 percent and that of the tertiary industry was 55,397.7 billion yuan, up by 2.1 percent. The value added of the primary industry accounted for 7.7 percent of the GDP; that of the secondary industry accounted for 37.8 percent; and that of the tertiary industry accounted for 54.5 percent. The contribution of the final consumption expenditure to GDP growth rate was down by 0.5 percentage points, that of the gross capital formation up by 2.2 percentage points and that of the net exports of goods and services up by 0.7 percentage points. By quarter, GDP in the first quarter was down by 6.8 percent year on year, up by 3.2 percent in the second quarter, up by 4.9 percent in the third quarter, and up by 6.5 percent in the fourth quarter. The per capita GDP in 2020 was expected to be 72,447 yuan, up by 2.0 percent over the previous year. The gross national income[4] in 2020 was 100,915.1 billion yuan, up by 1.9 percent over the previous year. The national energy consumption per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP[5] went down by 0.1 percent over 2019, and the overall labor productivity[6] was expected to reach 117,746 yuan per person in 2020, up by 2.5 percent over the previous year.

 

Figure 1: Gross Domestic Product and Growth Rates

2016-2020

 

 

Figure 2: Shares of the Three Industries’ Value Added of GDP 2016-2020

 

 

The newly increased employed people in urban areas numbered 11.86 million, 1.66 million less than the previous year. The surveyed urban unemployment rate was 5.2 percent at the year end, and the registered urban unemployment rate was 4.2 percent. The total number of migrant workers[7] was 285.60 million, down by 1.8 percent over that of 2019. Specifically, the number of migrant workers who left their hometowns and worked in other places was 169.59 million, down by 2.7 percent, and those who worked in their own localities reached 116.01 million, down by 0.4 percent.

 

Figure 3Newly Increased Employed People in Urban Areas 2016-2020

 

 

The consumer prices in 2020 went up by 2.5 percent over the previous year. The producer prices for industrial products went down by 1.8 percent and the purchasing prices for industrial producers down by 2.3 percent. The producer prices for farm products[8] increased by 15.0 percent. In December, out of the 70 large and medium-sized cities, 60 cities experienced a year-on-year rise in sales prices of new commercial residential buildings and 10 cities experienced a decline.

 

Figure 4Monthly Changes of Consumer Prices in 2020

 

 

Table 1: Changes of Consumer Prices in 2020

Unit: %

 

Item

National

 

Urban

Rural

 

 

 

 

General level of consumer prices

2.5

2.3

3.0

  Of which: Food, tobacco and liquor

8.3

7.8

9.6

            Clothing

-0.2

-0.2

-0.3

            Residence[9]

-0.4

-0.4

-0.5

            Household facilities, articles and services        

0.0

0.1

-0.1

            Transportation and telecommunication

-3.5

-3.6

-3.2

            Education, culture and recreation

1.3

1.4

1.1

            Health care and medical services

1.8

1.7

2.0

            Miscellaneous goods and services            

4.3

4.4

4.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

At the end of 2020, China’s foreign exchange reserves reached 3,216.5 billion US dollars, an increase of 108.6 billion US dollars compared with that at the end of 2019. The average exchange rate of the year was 6.8974 RMB to 1 USD dollar, appreciated by 0.02 percent over that of 2019.

 

Figure 5Year-end China's Foreign Exchange Reserves 2016-2020

 

 

Decisive achievements were made in the three critical battles. Based on the current rural poverty line of an individual’s cost of living per year of 2,300 yuan (at 2010 constant prices), 5.51 million rural population living in poverty were lifted out of poverty. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the absolute poverty was eradicated historically with 98.99 million rural poor population and all poverty-stricken counties lifted out of poverty. In 2020, the per capita disposable income of rural residents in impoverished areas[10] was 12,588 yuan, up by 8.8 percent over the previous year, or a real growth of 5.6 percent after deducting price factors. Of the monitored 337 cities at prefecture level and above, 59.9 percent reached the air quality standard and 40.1 percent failed. The annual average concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) for cities that failed to meet the standard (based on the 262 cities that failed to meet the standard of annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2015) was 37 micrograms per cubic meter, down by 7.5 percent over that of the previous year. In 2020, of the 1940 sections under the national monitoring program for surface water, 83.4 percent were fairly clean water quality (Grade I to III), 13.6 percent were Grade IV, 2.4 percent were Grade V and 0.6 percent was worse than Grade V national standard. By the end of 2020, the outstanding liability of local governments nationwide was within the limit approved by the National People’s Congress. Major progress have been made in financial risks management.

 

New industries, new types of business and new business models grew despite headwinds. Among the industries above the designated size, the value added of high technology manufacturing industry[11] grew by 7.1 percent over the previous year, accounting for 15.1 percent of that of all industrial enterprises above the designated size. The value added for the manufacture of equipment[12] was up by 6.6 percent, accounting for 33.7 percent of that of all industrial enterprises above the designated size. Among the service enterprises above the designated size[13], the business revenue of the strategic emerging service industries[14] went up by 8.3 percent over the previous year. In 2020, the investment in high technology industries[15] increased by 10.6 percent over the previous year. The output of new energy vehicles in 2020 reached 1.456 million, up by 17.3 percent over the previous year, and that of integrated circuits was 261.47 billion, up by 29.6 percent. In 2020, the online retail sales[16] reached 11,760.1 billion yuan, an increase of 10.9 percent over the previous year on a comparable basis. In 2020, the number of newly registered market entities was 25.02 million with 22 thousand market entities newly registered per day on average. By the end of 2020, the market entities totaled 140 million.

 

Regional coordinated development was pushed forward steadily. By the end of 2020, the urbanization rate of permanent residents exceeded 60 percent. By region[17], in 2020, the gross domestic product in the eastern areas was 52,575.2 billion yuan, an increase of 2.9 percent compared with the previous year; the central areas, 22,224.6 billion yuan, up by 1.3 percent; the western areas, 21,329.2 billion yuan, up by 3.3 percent; and the northeastern areas, 5,112.5 billion yuan, up by 1.1 percent. In 2020, the gross domestic product in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region reached 8,639.3 billion yuan, up by 2.4 percent over the previous year; that in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, 47,158.0 billion yuan, up by 2.7 percent; and that in the Yangtze River Delta, 24,471.4 billion yuan, up by 3.3 percent. Major regional strategies like construction of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Areas, ecological protection in Yellow River Basin and high-quality development were further implemented.

 

II. Agriculture

 

In 2020, the sown area of grain was 116.77 million hectares, an increase of 0.70 million hectares compared with that in 2019. Of this total, the sown area of rice was 30.08 million hectares, an increase of 0.38 million hectares; the sown area of wheat was 23.38 million hectares, a decrease of 0.35 million hectares; the sown area of corn was 41.26 million hectares, a decrease of 20 thousand hectares. The sown area of cotton was 3.17 million hectares, a decrease of 0.17 million hectares. The sown area of oil-bearing crops was 13.13 million hectares, up by 0.20 million hectares; the sown area of sugar crops was 1.57 million hectares, down by 40 thousand hectares.

 

The total output of grain in 2020 was 669.49 million tons, an increase of 5.65 million tons over the previous year, or up by 0.9 percent. Of this total, the output of summer crops was 142.86 million tons, up by 0.9 percent, and that of the early rice was 27.29 million tons, up by 3.9 percent. The output of autumn grain was 499.34 million tons, up by 0.7 percent. The output of cereal in 2020 was 616.74 million tons, up by 0.5 percent over 2019, among which the output of rice was 211.86 million tons, up by 1.1 percent; that of wheat was 134.25 million tons, up by 0.5 percent; and that of corn was 260.67 million tons, roughly the same but a little less than that of 2019.

 

Figure 6: Output of Grain 2016-2020

 

 

In 2020, the output of cotton was 5.91 million tons, up by 0.4 percent over the previous year, that of oil-bearing crops was 35.85 million tons, up by 2.6 percent, that of sugar crops was 120.28 million tons, down by 1.2 percent, and that of tea was 2.97 million tons, up by 7.1 percent.

 

The total output of pork, beef, mutton and poultry in 2020 was 76.39 million tons, down by 0.1 percent over the previous year. Of this total, the output of pork was 41.13 million tons, down by 3.3 percent; that of beef was 6.72 million tons, up by 0.8 percent; that of mutton was 4.92 million tons, up by 1.0 percent; and that of poultry was 23.61 million tons, up by 5.5 percent. The total output of eggs was 34.68 million tons, up by 4.8 percent. The production of milk was 34.40 million tons, up by 7.5 percent. At the end of the year, 406.50 million pigs were registered in the total stocks, up by 31.0 percent compared with that at the end of 2019, and 527.04 million pigs were slaughtered, down by 3.2 percent over the previous year.

 

The total output of aquatic products in 2020 was 65.45 million tons, up by 1.0 percent over the previous year. Of this total, the output of cultured aquatic products was 52.15 million tons, up by 3.0 percent; and that of fished aquatic products was 13.30 million tons, down by 5.0 percent. 

 

The total production of timber in 2020 reached 87.27 million cubic meters, down by 13.1 percent over the previous year.

 

In 2020, over 0.43 million hectares of farmland were newly equipped with irrigation systems and another 1.60 million hectares of farmland was newly equipped with water-saving irrigation systems.

 

III. Industry and Construction

 

In 2020, the total value added of the industrial sector was 31,307.1 billion yuan, up by 2.4 percent over the previous year. The value added of industrial enterprises above the designated size increased by 2.8 percent. Of the industrial enterprises above the designated size, in terms of ownership, the value added of the state-holding enterprises grew by 2.2 percent, that of the share-holding enterprises up by 3.0 percent, that of the enterprises funded by foreign investors and investors from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan up by 2.4 percent and that of private enterprises up by 3.7 percent. In terms of sectors, the value added of the mining industry was up by 0.5 percent, that of manufacturing up by 3.4 percent and that of production and supply of electricity, heat power, gas and water up by 2.0 percent.

 

Figure 7: Value Added and Growth Rates of Industrial Enterprises 2016-2020

 

 

In 2020, of the industrial enterprises above the designated size, the value added for processing of food from agricultural and sideline products was down by 1.5 percent over the previous year; for textile industry up by 0.7 percent; for manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products up by 3.4 percent; for manufacture of non-metallic mineral products up by 2.8 percent; for smelting and pressing of ferrous metals up by 6.7 percent; for manufacture of general purpose machinery up by 5.1 percent; for manufacture of special purpose machinery up by 6.3 percent; for manufacture of automobiles up by 6.6 percent; for manufacture of electrical machinery and apparatus up by 8.9 percent; for manufacture of computers, communication equipment and other electronic equipment up by 7.7 percent; for production and supply of electricity and heat power up by 1.9 percent.

 

Table 2: Output of Major Industrial Products and Growth Rates in 2020[18]

 

 

Product

Unit

Output

Increase over

2019 (%)

 

 

 

 

Yarn

10000 tons

2618.3

-7.4

Cloth

100 million meters

460.3

-17.1

Chemical fiber

10000 tons

6126.5

4.1

Refined sugar (final product)

10000 tons

1431.3

3.0

Cigarettes

100 million

23863.7

0.9

Color TV sets

10000

19626.2

3.3

  Of which: LCD TV sets

10000

19247.2

3.0

Household refrigerators

10000

9014.7

14.0

Air conditioners

10000

21035.3

-3.8

Primary energy output

100 million tons of standard coal equivalent

40.8

2.8

Coal

100 million tons

39.0

1.4

Crude petroleum oil

10000 tons

19476.9

1.6

Natural gas

100 million cubic meters

1925.0

9.8

Electricity

100 million kilowatt-hours

77790.6

3.7

  Of which: Thermal power[19]

100 million kilowatt-hours

53302.5

2.1

     Hydropower

100 million kilowatt-hours

13552.1

3.9

     Nuclear-power

100 million kilowatt-hours

3662.5

5.1

Crude steel

10000 tons

106476.7

7.0

Rolled steel[20]

10000 tons

132489.2

10.0

Ten kinds of nonferrous metals

10000 tons

6188.4

5.5

  Of which:  Refined copper (copper)

10000 tons

1002.5

2.5

     Aluminum electrolyze

10000 tons

3708.0

5.6

Cement

100 million tons

24.0

2.5

Sulfuric acid (100%)

10000 tons

9238.2

1.3

Caustic soda (100%)

10000 tons

3673.9

6.2

Ethylene

10000 tons

2160.0

5.2

Chemical fertilizers

  (100 percent equivalent)

10000 tons

5496.0

-4.1

Power generation equipment

10000 kilowatts

13226.2

38.3

Motor vehicles

10000

2532.5

-1.4

  Of which:  Basic passenger cars (cars)

10000

923.9

-10.2

     Sport utility vehicles (SUVs)

10000

905.0

2.6

Large and medium tractors

10000

34.6

23.0

Integrated circuits

100 million pieces

2614.7

29.6

Program-controlled switchboards

10000 lines

702.5

-11.1

Mobile telephones

10000

146961.8

-13.3

Micro computer equipment

10000

37800.4

10.6

Industrial robots

10000 sets

21.2

20.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

By the end of 2020, the installed power generation capacity was 2,200.58 million kilowatts, up by 9.5 percent over that at the end of 2019, among which[21] the installed thermal power generation capacity was 1,245.17 million kilowatts, up by 4.7 percent; the installed hydropower generation capacity was 370.16 million kilowatts, up by 3.4 percent; the installed nuclear power generation capacity was 49.89 million kilowatts, up by 2.4 percent. The installed grid-connected wind power generation capacity was 281.53 million kilowatts, up by 34.6 percent and the installed grid-connected solar power generation capacity was 253.43 million kilowatts, up by 24.1 percent.

 

In 2020, the profits made by industrial enterprises above the designated size were 6,451.6 billion yuan, up by 4.1 percent[22] over the previous year. By ownership, the profits of state-holding enterprises were 1,486.1 billion yuan, down by 2.9 percent over the previous year; those of share-holding enterprises were 4,544.5 billion yuan, up by 3.4 percent; those of enterprises funded by foreign investors or investors from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan were 1,823.4 billion yuan, up by 7.0 percent; and those of private enterprises were 2,026.2 billion yuan, up by 3.1 percent. In terms of different sectors, the profits of mining were 355.3 billion yuan, down by 31.5 percent over the previous year; those of manufacturing were 5,579.5 billion yuan, up by 7.6 percent; and those of the production and supply of electricity, heat power, gas and water were 516.8 billion yuan, up by 4.9 percent. In 2020, the cost for per-hundred-yuan business revenue of the industrial enterprises above the designated size was 83.89 yuan, or 0.11 yuan less than that of 2019; the profit rate of the business revenue was 6.08 percent, up by 0.20 percentage points. By the end of 2020, the asset-liability ratio of industrial enterprises above the designated size was 56.1 percent, 0.3 percentage points lower than the end of 2019. The national industrial capacity utilization rate[23] was 74.5 percent in 2020, specifically 67.3 percent, 74.4 percent, 76.7percent and 78.0 percent in the first, second, third and fourth quarters.

 

In 2020, the value added of construction enterprises in China was 7,299.6 billion yuan, up by 3.5 percent over the previous year. The profits made by construction enterprises qualified for general contracts and specialized contracts reached 830.3 billion yuan, up by 0.3 percent over the previous year, of which the profits made by state-holding enterprises were 287.1 billion yuan, up by 4.7 percent.

 

Figure 8: Value Added and Growth Rates of Construction Industry 2016-2020

 

 

IV. Service Sector

 

In 2020, the value added of the wholesale and retail trades was 9,568.6 billion yuan, down by 1.3 percent over the previous year; that of transport, storage and post was 4,156.2 billion yuan, up by 0.5 percent; that of hotels and catering services was 1,597.1 billion yuan, down by 13.1 percent; that of financial intermediation was 8,407.0 billion yuan, up by 7.0 percent; that of real estate was 7,455.3 billion yuan, up by 2.9 percent; that of information transmission, software and information technology services was 3,795.1 billion yuan, up by 16.9 percent; and that of leasing and business services was 3,161.6 billion yuan, down by 5.3 percent. In 2020, the business revenue of service enterprises above the designated size grew by 1.9 percent over the previous year, and the operating profits decreased by 7.0 percent.

 

Figure 9: Value Added and Growth Rates of Service Sector 2016-2020

 

 

The total freight traffic[24] in 2020 reached 46.3 billion tons. The freight flows were 19,661.8 billion ton-kilometers. The volume of freight handled by ports throughout the year totaled 14.5 billion tons, up by 4.3 percent over the previous year, of which the freight for foreign trade was 4.5 billion tons, up by 4.0 percent. Container shipping of ports reached 264.30 million standard containers, up by 1.2 percent.

 

Table 3: Freight Traffic by All Means of Transportation and Growth Rates in 2020

 

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase over 2019(%)

 

 

 

 

 

Total freight traffic

100 million tons

463.4

-0.5

Railways

100 million tons

44.6

3.2

Highways

100 million tons

342.6

-0.3

Waterways

100 million tons

76.2

-3.3

Civil aviation

10000 tons

676.6

-10.2

Freight flows

100 million ton-kilometers

196618.3

-1.0

Railways

100 million ton-kilometers

30371.8

1.0

Highways

100 million ton-kilometers

60171.8

0.9

Waterways

100 million ton-kilometers

105834.4

-2.5

Civil aviation

100 million ton-kilometers

240.2

-8.7

 

 

 

 

 

In 2020, the total passenger traffic was 9.7 billion person-times, down by 45.1 percent over 2019, and the passenger flows were 1,925.1 billion person-kilometers, down by 45.5 percent.

 

Table 4: Passenger Traffic by All Means of Transportation and Growth Rates in 2020

 

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase over 2019 (%)

 

 

 

 

 

Total passenger traffic

100 million person-times

96.7

 

-45.1

Railways

100 million person-times

22.0

 

-39.8

Highways

100 million person-times

68.9

 

-47.0

Waterways

100 million person-times

1.5

 

-45.2

Civil aviation

100 million person-times

4.2

 

-36.7

Passenger flows

100 million person-kilometers

19251.4

 

-45.5

Railways

100 million person-kilometers

8266.2

 

-43.8

Highways

100 million person-kilometers

4641.0

 

-47.6

Waterways

100 million person-kilometers

33.0

 

-58.0

Civil aviation

100 million person-kilometers

6311.2

 

-46.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

The total number of motor vehicles for civilian use reached 280.87 million (including 7.48 million tri-wheel motor vehicles and low-speed trucks) by the end of 2020, up by 19.37 million over that at the end of 2019, of which the privately-owned vehicles numbered 243.93 million, an increase of 17.58 million. The total number of cars for civilian use was 156.40 million, an increase of 9.96 million, of which the privately-owned cars numbered 146.74 million, an increase of 9.73 million.

  

The turnover of post services[25] totaled 2,105.3 billion yuan, up by 29.7 percent over the previous year. In 2020, the number of mail delivery was 1.42 billion; that of parcel delivery was 20 million; and that of express delivery was 83.36 billion with a revenue reaching 879.5 billion yuan. The turnover of telecommunication services[26] totaled 13,675.8 billion yuan, up by 28.1 percent over the previous year. By the end of 2020, there were 1,775.98 million phone subscribers in China, of whom 1,594.07 million were mobile phone subscribers. Mobile phone coverage was 113.9 sets per 100 persons. The number of fixed broadband internet users[27] reached 483.55 million, an increase of 34.27 million over the end of the previous year. Of this total, fixed fiber-optic broadband internet users[28] amounted to 454.14 million, an increase of 36.75 million. The mobile internet traffic in 2020 was 165.6 billion gigabytes, up by 35.7 percent over the previous year. The number of internet user was 989 million at the end of 2020, 986 million of which were mobile internet surfers[29]. The coverage of internet was 70.4 percent, and 55.9 percent in rural areas. Software revenue from software and information technology services industry[30] in 2020 was 8,161.6 billion yuan, up by 13.3 percent over 2019 on a comparable basis.

 

Figure 10: Express Delivery and Growth Rates 2016-2020

 

 

Figure 11: Year-end Number of Fixed Broadband Internet Users

2016-2020

 

 

V. Domestic Trade

 

In 2020, the total retail sales of consumer goods reached 39,198.1 billion yuan, a decrease of 3.9 percent over the previous year. An analysis on different areas showed that the retail sales of consumer goods in urban areas stood at 33,911.9 billion yuan, down by 4.0 percent, and that in rural areas reached 5,286.2 billion yuan, down by 3.2 percent. Grouped by consumption patterns, the retail sales of commodities was 35,245.3 billion yuan, down by 2.3 percent, and that of catering industry was 3,952.7 billion yuan, down by 16.6 percent.

 

Figure 12: Total Retail Sales of Consumer Goods 2016-2020[31]

 

 

Of the total retail sales of commodities by enterprises above the designated size, the year-on-year growth of retail sales for grain, oil and food went up by 9.9 percent; beverage up by 14.0 percent; tobacco and liquor up by 5.4 percent; clothes, shoes, hats and textiles down by 6.6 percent; cosmetics up by 9.5 percent; gold, silver and jewelry down by 4.7 percent; daily necessities up by 7.5 percent; household appliances and audio-video equipment down by 3.8 percent; traditional Chinese and western medicines up by 7.8 percent; cultural and office appliances up by 5.8 percent; furniture down by 7.0 percent; telecommunication equipment up by 12.9 percent; building and decoration materials down by 2.8 percent; petroleum and petroleum products down by 14.5 percent; and motor vehicles down by 1.8 percent.

 

In 2020, the online retail sales of physical goods were 9,759.0 billion yuan, up by 14.8 percent over the previous year on a comparable basis, accounting for 24.9 percent of the total retail sales of consumer goods, or 4.0 percentage points higher than that of 2019.

 

VI. Investment in Fixed Assets

 

The total investment in fixed assets[32] of the country in 2020 was 52,727.0 billion yuan, up by 2.7 percent over the previous year. Of the total, the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households) was 51,890.7 billion yuan, up by 2.9 percent. By regions[33], the investment in eastern areas was up by 3.8 percent over the previous year, central areas up by 0.7 percent, western areas up by 4.4 percent, and northeastern areas up by 4.3 percent.

 

In the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households), the investment in the primary industry was 1,330.2 billion yuan, up by 19.5 percent over the previous year; that in the secondary industry was 14,915.4 billion yuan, up by 0.1 percent; and that in the tertiary industry was 35,645.1 billion yuan, up by 3.6 percent. The private investment in fixed assets[34] was 28,926.4 billion yuan, up by 1.0 percent. The investment in infrastructure[35] saw an increase of 0.9 percent.

 

Figure 13: Shares of Investment in Fixed Assets of the Three Industries (Excluding Rural Households) in 2020

 

 

Table 5: Growth Rates of Investment in Fixed Assets (Excluding Rural Households) by Sectors in 2020

 

 

Sector

Increase over 2019 (%)

Sector

Increase over 2019 (%)

 

 

 

 

Total

2.9

Financial Intermediation

-13.3 

Agriculture,Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery

19.1

Real Estate[36]

5.0 

Mining

-14.1

Leasing and Business Services

5.0  

Manufacturing

-2.2

Scientific Research and Technical Services

3.4  

Production and Supply of Electricity, Heat Power, Gas and Water

17.6

Water Conservancy, Environment and Public Facilities

  Management

0.2  

Construction

9.2

Services to Households,

Repair and Other Services

-2.9  

Wholesale and Retail Trades

-21.5

Education

12.3  

Transport, Storage and Post

1.4

Health and Social Service

26.8  

Hotels and Catering Services

-5.5

Culture, Sports and Entertainment

1.0  

Information Transmission, Software and Information Technology

  Services

18.7

Public Management, Social Security and Social

  Organizations

-6.4  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 6: Newly Increased Production and Operation Capacity through Fixed Assets Investment in 2020

 

Item

Unit

Volume

 

 

 

Newly increased power transformer equipment with a capacity of over 220 kilovolts

10,000 kilovolt-amperes

22288

New railways put into operation

kilometer

4933

   Of which, high-speed railways

kilometer

2521

Extended or new double-track railways put into operation

kilometer

3380

Electrified railways put into operation

kilometer

5480

Length of new and rebuilt highways

kilometer

12713

New throughput capacity of berths for over 10,000-tonnage ships

10,000 tons/year

30562

New civil transportation airports

-

3

New lines of optical-fiber cables

10,000 km

428

 

 

 

 

In 2020, the investment in real estate development was 14,144.3 billion yuan, up by 7.0 percent over the previous year. Of this total, the investment in residential buildings reached 10,444.6 billion yuan, an increase of 7.6 percent, that in office buildings was 649.4 billion yuan, up by 5.4 percent, and that in buildings for commercial business was 1,307.6 billion yuan, down by 1.1 percent. The floor space of the commercial buildings for sale was 498.50 million square meters at the end of 2020, an increase of 0.29 million square meters over that at the end of 2019. The floor space of the commercial residential buildings for sale was 223.79 million square meters, a decrease of 0.94 million square meters.

 

In 2020, 2.09 million housing units were started to be rebuilt in rundown urban areas nationwide. The number of housing units rebuilt in rundown areas was 2.03 million. In rural areas of China, for the poverty-stricken households that had their economic status registered at the local governments, 742.1 thousand[37] of them witnessed their dilapidated houses rebuilt or renovated in 2020 as the round-off of the programme in the fight against poverty.

 

Table 7: Main Indicators for Real Estate Development and Sales and Growth Rates in 2020

 

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase over 2019 (%)

 

 

 

 

Value of Investment

100 million RMB

141443

7.0

 Of which: residential buildings

100 million RMB

104446

7.6

Floor space of buildings under construction

10000 square meters

926759

3.7

Of which: residential buildings

10000 square meters

655558

4.4

Floor space of buildings newly started

10000 square meters

224433

-1.2

Of which: residential buildings

10000 square meters

164329

-1.9

Floor space of buildings completed

10000 square meters

91218

-4.9

Of which: residential buildings

10000 square meters

65910

-3.1

Floor space of commercial buildings sold

10000 square meters

176086

2.6

Of which: residential buildings

10000 square meters

154878

3.2

Funds for investment this year

100 million RMB

193115

8.1

Of which: domestic loans

100 million RMB

26676

5.7

           individual mortgage

100 million RMB

29976

9.9

 

 

 

VII. Foreign Economic Relations

 

The total value of imports and exports of goods in 2020 reached 32,155.7 billion yuan, up by 1.9 percent over that of the previous year. Of this total, the value of goods exported was 17,932.6 billion yuan, up by 4.0 percent; the value of goods imported was 14,223.1 billion yuan, down by 0.7 percent. The surplus of trade in goods reached 3,709.6 billion yuan, up by 797.6 billion yuan over that of the previous year. The total value of imports and exports between China and countries along the Belt and Road[38] was 9,369.6 billion yuan, an increase of 1.0 percent over that of the previous year. Of the total, the value of goods exported was 5,426.3 billion yuan, an increase of 3.2 percent; that of goods imported was 3,943.3 billion yuan, a decrease of 1.8 percent.

 

Figure 14: Imports and Exports of Goods 2016-2020

 

 

Table 8: Total Value and Growth Rates of Import and Export of Goods in 2020

 

Item

Value

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2019 (%)

 

 

 

Total value of import and export of goods

321557

1.9

  Exports

179326

4.0

Of which: General trade

106460

6.9

                          Processing trade

48589

-4.2

Of which: Mechanical and electronic products

106608

6.0

                          High & new technology products

53692

6.5

  Imports

142231

-0.7

Of which: General trade

86048

-0.7

                          Processing trade

27853

-3.2

Of which: Mechanical and electronic products

65625

4.8

                          High & new technology products

47160

7.2

Trade surplus

37096

       

 

 

 

 

Table 9: Main Export Commodities in Volume and Value and the Growth Rates in 2020

 

 

Item

Unit

 

Volume

 

Increase over 2019 (%)

Value

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2019 (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rolled steel

10000 tons

5367

-16.5

3151

-14.8

Textile yarns and textile articles

10695

30.4

Clothes and clothing accessories

9520

-6.0

Footwear

10000 pairs

740137

-22.4

2454

-20.9

Furniture and parts

4039

12.2

Luggage and similar containers

10000 tons

201

-34.7

1429

-23.9

Toys

2317

7.7

Plastic articles

5902

20.0

Integrated circuits

100 million pieces

2598

18.8

8056

15.0

Automatic data processing machines and components

14599

12.0

Mobile phones

10000 sets

96640

-2.8

8647

0.4

Containers

10000 units

198

-17.9

508

10.5

Liquid crystal display panels

10000 units

126747

-15.9

1370

-7.1

Motor vehicles (including chassis)

10000 sets

108

-13.2

1090

-3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 10: Main Import Commodities in Volume and Value and the Growth Rates in 2020

 

 

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase over 2019 (%)

Value

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2019 (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soybean 

10000 tons

10033

13.3

2743

12.5

Edible vegetable oil

10000 tons

983

3.1

515

17.7

Iron ore and concentrate

10000 tons

117010

9.5

8229

17.8

Coal and lignite

10000 tons

30399

1.5

1411

-12.1

Crude oil

10000 tons

54239

7.3

12218

-26.8

Petroleum products refined

10000 tons

2835

-7.2

818

-30.4

Natural gas

10000 tons

10166

5.3

 2315

-19.4

Plastics in primary forms

10000 tons

4063

10.1

3628

-1.2

Paper pulp

10000 tons

3063

12.7

1088

-7.6

Rolled steel

10000 tons

2023

64.4

1165

19.8

Unwrought copper and its alloys

10000 tons

668

34.1

2988

33.4

Integrated circuits

100 million pieces

5435

22.1

24207

14.8

Motor vehicles (including chassis)

10000 sets

93

-11.4

3242

-3.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 11: Imports and Exports of Goods by Major Countries and Regions, the Growth Rates and Proportions in 2020

 

 

Country or region

Exports

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2019 (%)

Proportion of the total

(%)

Imports

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2019 (%)

Proportion of the total

(%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ASEAN

26550

7.0

14.8

20807

6.9

  14.6

European Union[39]

27084

7.2

15.1

17874

2.6

12.6

United States

31279

8.4

17.4

9319

10.1

6.6

Japan

9883

0.1

5.5

12090

2.1

8.5

Republic of Korea

7787

1.8

4.3

11957

0.0

8.4

Hong Kong, China

18830

-2.2

10.5

482

-22.9

0.3

Taiwan, China

4163

9.5

2.3

13873

16.2

9.8

Brazil

2417

-1.5

1.3

5834

5.8

4.1

Russia

3506

2.1

2.0

3960

-6.1

2.8

India

4613

-10.5

2.6

1445

16.7

1.0

South Africa

1055

-7.5

0.6

1422

-20.4

1.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The total value of imports and exports of services in 2020 was 4,564.3 billion yuan, down by 15.7 percent over that of the previous year. The export value of services was 1,935.7 billion yuan, down by 1.1 percent. The import value of services was 2,628.6 billion yuan, down by 24.0 percent. The trade deficit in imports and exports of services was 692.9 billion yuan.

 

The year 2020 witnessed the establishment of 38,570 enterprises (excluding banking, securities and insurance) with foreign direct investment, down by 5.7 percent over that of the previous year, and the foreign direct investment actually utilized totaled 1,000.0 billion yuan, up by 6.2 percent, or 144.4 billion US dollars, up by 4.5 percent. Specifically, there were 4,294 newly established enterprises receiving direct investment from countries along the Belt and Road (including the investment in China via some free ports), down by 23.2 percent; and foreign capital directly invested in China reached 57.4 billion yuan, down by 0.3 percent, or 8.3 billion US dollars, down by 1.8 percent. In 2020, the foreign investment actually utilized by high technology industry reached 296.3 billion yuan, up by 11.4 percent, or 42.8 billion US dollars, up by 9.5 percent.

 

Table 12: Total Value of Foreign Direct Investment (Excluding Banking,

Securities and Insurance) and the Growth Rates in 2020

  

Sector

Enterprises

Increase over 2019 (%)

Actually Utilized Value

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2019 (%)

Total

38570

-5.7

10000

6.2

Of which: Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery

493

-0.4

40

4.9

   Manufacturing

3732

-30.8

2156

-10.8

   Production and Supply of Electricity, Heat Power, Gas and Water

260

-11.9

217

-9.4

   Transport, Storage and Post

592

0.2

347

12.1

   Information Transmission, Software and Information Technology Services

3521

-18.0

1133

13.3

   Wholesale and Retail

10812

-21.9

819

33.3

   Real Estate

1190

13.3

1407

-12.5

   Leasing and Business Services

7513

30.1

1838

22.6

   Services to Households, Repair and Other Services

447

23.8

21

-42.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 2020, the non-financial outbound direct investment reached 759.8 billion yuan, down by 0.4 percent over that of the previous year, or 110.2 billion US dollars, down by 0.4 percent. Of this total, that to countries along the Belt and Road reached 17.8 billion US dollars, up by 18.3 percent.

 

Table 13: Total Value and Growth Rates of Non-financial Outbound Direct Investment in 2020

  

Sector

Value

(100 million US dollars)

Increase over

2019 (%)

 

 

 

Total      

       1101.5

-0.4

Of which:

        

Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery

13.9 

-9.7

Mining

50.9 

-32.3

Manufacturing

199.7 

-0.5

Production and Supply of Electricity, Heat Power, Gas and Water

27.8 

10.3

Construction

51.6 

-39.4

Wholesale and Retail

160.7 

27.8

Transport, Storage and Post

26.5 

-52.3

Information Transmission, Software and Information Technology Services

67.1 

9.6

Real Estate

27.3 

-43.4

 

Leasing and Business Services

417.9 

17.5

 

 

 

 

 

In 2020, the accomplished business revenue through contracted overseas engineering projects was 1,075.6 billion yuan, down by 9.8 percent over that of the previous year, or 155.9 billion US dollars, down by 9.8 percent. Specifically, the accomplished business revenue from countries along the Belt and Road was 91.1 billion US dollars, a decrease of 7.0 percent, accounting for 58.4 percent of the accomplished business revenue through contracted overseas engineering projects. The number of labor forces sent abroad through overseas labor contracts was 300 thousand.

 

VIII. Finance and Financial Intermediation

 

The national general public budget revenue reached 18,289.5 billion yuan in 2020, down by 3.9 percent over that of the previous year, of which tax revenue amounted to 15,431.0 billion yuan, down by 2.3 percent. The national general public budget expenditure reached 24,558.8 billion yuan, up by 2.8 percent over that of the previous year. The year 2020 witnessed a further tax and fee cuts of over 2.5 trillion yuan.

 

Figure 15: General Public Budget Revenue 2016-2020

 

 

Note: Data for general public budget revenue from 2016 to 2019 as shown in the figure were final accounts and that of 2020 was the executive accounts.

 

By the end of 2020, money supply of broad sense (M2) was 218.7 trillion yuan, an increase of 10.1 percent over that by the end of the previous year. Money supply of narrow sense (M1) was 62.6 trillion yuan, up by 8.6 percent. Cash in circulation (M0) was 8.4 trillion yuan, up by 9.2 percent.

 

In 2020, the aggregate financing to the real economy (AFRE) (flow) [40] reached 34.9 trillion yuan, or 9.2 trillion yuan more than that in 2019 on a comparable basis. The AFRE (stock) [41] totaled 284.8 trillion yuan at the end of 2020, up by 13.3 percent over that at the end of 2019 on a comparable basis. Specifically, loans granted to the real economy in Renminbi stood at 171.6 trillion yuan, up by 13.2 percent. Savings deposit in Renminbi and foreign currencies in all items of financial institutions totaled 218.4 trillion yuan at the end of 2020, an increase of 20.2 trillion yuan compared with that at the beginning of the year. Of this total, the savings deposit in Renminbi stood at 212.6 trillion yuan, an increase of 19.6 trillion yuan. Loans in Renminbi and foreign currencies in all items of financial institutions reached 178.4 trillion yuan, an increase of 19.8 trillion yuan. Of this total, loans in Renminbi were 172.7 trillion yuan, an increase of 19.6 trillion yuan. Inclusive finance loans in Renminbi [42] reached 21.5 trillion yuan, an increase of 4.2 trillion yuan.

 

Table 14: Savings Deposit and Loans in RMB and Foreign Currencies in All Financial Institutions and Growth Rates at the End of 2020

 

Item

Year-end figure

(100 million yuan)

Increase over 2019 (%)

 

 

 

Savings deposit

2183744

10.2

Domestic households

934383

13.8

Deposits in RMB

925986

13.9

Domestic non-financial enterprises

688218

10.8

Loans

1784034

12.5

Domestic short-term loans

492682

4.3

Domestic medium- and long-term loans

1137504

17.1

 

 

 

 

Loans in Renminbi from rural financial institutions (rural credit cooperatives, rural cooperation banks and rural commercial banks) totaled 21,588.6 billion yuan by the end of 2020, an increase of 2,521.0 billion yuan as compared with that at the beginning of the year. Loans in Renminbi for consumption use from all financial institutions totaled 49,566.8 billion yuan, an increase of 5,599.4 billion yuan. Of the total, short-term personal loans totaled 8,777.4 billion yuan, an increase of 717.7 billion yuan, and medium- and long-term personal loans reached 40,789.4 billion yuan, an increase of 4,881.7 billion yuan.

 

Funds raised through A-shares issued on Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges [43] amounted to 1,541.7 billion yuan in 2020, an increase of 188.3 billion yuan from the previous year. 394 A-shares were newly issued, raising 474.2 billion yuan worth of capital altogether, up by 225.2 billion yuan over that of the previous year. Of the total, 145 shares were from the science and technology innovation board, raising 222.6 billion yuan; refinancing of A-shares (including public newly issued, targeted placement, right issued, preferred stock and exchanged convertible bonds) raised 1,067.4 billion yuan, a decrease of 37.0 billion yuan over that of the previous year. Various types of market entities financed 8,477.7 billion yuan through issuing bonds (including corporate bonds, convertible bonds, exchangeable bonds, financial bonds issued by policy banks, local government bonds and asset-backed securities) on Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges, up by 1,279.1 billion yuan over that of the previous year. There were 8,187 companies listed on National Equities Exchange and Quotations [44] and funds raised by listed companies reached 33.9 billion yuan in 2020.

 

In 2020, 14.2 trillion yuan corporate debenture bonds [45] were issued, an increase of 3.5 trillion yuan over that of the previous year.

 

The premium of primary insurance received by the insurance companies [46] totaled 4,525.7 billion yuan in 2020, up by 6.1 percent over that of the previous year. Of this total, life insurance premium of primary insurance amounted to 2,398.2 billion yuan, health and casualty insurance premium of primary insurance 934.7 billion yuan, and property insurance premium of primary insurance 1,192.9 billion yuan. Insurance companies paid an indemnity worth of 1,390.7 billion yuan, of which, life insurance indemnity was 371.5 billion yuan, health and casualty insurance indemnity 323.7 billion yuan, and property insurance indemnity 695.5 billion yuan.

 

IX. Households Income and Consumption and Social Security

 

In 2020, the per capita disposable income nationwide was 32,189 yuan, an increase of 4.7 percent over that of the previous year or a real increase of 2.1 percent after deducting price factors. The median [47] of per capita disposable income nationwide was 27,540 yuan, up by 3.8 percent. In terms of usual residence, the per capita disposable income of urban households was 43,834 yuan, up by 3.5 percent over that of 2019, or a real growth of 1.2 percent after deducting price factors. The median of per capita disposable income of urban households was 40,378 yuan, up by 2.9 percent. The per capita disposable income of rural households was 17,131 yuan, up by 6.9 percent over that of the previous year, or 3.8 percent in real terms after deducting price factors. The median of per capita disposable income of rural households was 15,204 yuan, up by 5.7 percent. The urban-rural per capita disposable income ratio was 2.56, down by 0.08 over that of the previous year. Grouped by income quintile[48], the per capita disposable income of low-income group reached 7,869 yuan, the lower-middle-income group 16,443 yuan, the middle-income group 26,249 yuan, the upper-middle-income group 41,172 yuan and the high-income group 80,294 yuan. The per capita monthly income of migrant workers was 4,072 yuan, increased by 2.8 percent over that of the previous year.

 

The national per capita consumption expenditure was 21,210 yuan, down by 1.6 percent over that of the previous year, or a real decrease of 4.0 percent after deducting price factors. Specifically, the per capita consumption expenditure on services [49] totaled 9,037 yuan, down by 8.6 percent over that of the previous year, accounting for 42.6 percent of the per capita consumption expenditure. In terms of usual residence, the per capita consumption expenditure of urban households was 27,007 yuan, down by 3.8 percent, or 6.0 percent in real terms after deducting price factors. The per capita consumption expenditure of rural households was 13,713 yuan, up by 2.9 percent, or a real decrease of 0.1 percent after deducting price factors. The national Engel’s Coefficient stood at 30.2 percent, with that of urban and rural households standing at 29.2 percent and 32.7 percent respectively.

 

Figure 16: National Per Capita Disposable Income and its Growth Rates 2016-2020

 

 

Figure 17: National Per Capita Consumption Expenditure and Composition in 2020

 

 

By the end of 2020, a total of 456.38 million people participated in basic endowment insurance program for urban workers, an increase of 21.50 million over that by the end of 2019. A total of 542.44 million people participated in basic endowment insurance program for urban and rural residents, an increase of 9.78 million. A total of 1,361.01 million people participated in basic medical insurance program, an increase of 6.93 million. Of this total, 344.23 million people participated in the program for workers, an increase of 14.98 million, and 1,016.78 million people participated in the program for urban and rural residents. Some 216.89 million people participated in unemployment insurance program, an increase of 11.47 million. The number of people receiving unemployment insurance payment stood at 2.70 million by the end of 2020. A total of 267.70 million people participated in work-related injury insurance, an increase of 12.91 million, of which 89.34 million were migrant workers, an increase of 3.18 million. A total of 235.46 million people participated in maternity insurance programs, an increase of 21.29 million. Minimum living allowances were granted to 8.05 million urban residents and 36.21 million rural residents, and 4.47 million rural residents living in extreme poverty[50] received relief and assistance and 13.41 million people received temporary assistance[51]. A total of 89.90 million people were financed to participate in basic medical insurance program and direct assistance[52] was granted to 73.00 million recipients. National subsidies and allowances were provided to 8.37 million veterans and other entitled people in 2020.

 

By the end of 2020, there were altogether 41 thousand social welfare institutions providing accommodation, of which 38 thousand were elderly caring organizations and 735 were children caring organizations. The social welfare institutions provided 8.509 million beds[53], of which 8.238 million were for the elderly and 98 thousand were for children. By the end of 2020, there were 29 thousand community service centers and 393 thousand community service stations.

 

X. Science & Technology and Education

 

Expenditures on research and experimental development activities (R&D) were worth 2,442.6 billion yuan in 2020, up by 10.3 percent over that of 2019, accounting for 2.40 percent of GDP. Of this total, 150.4 billion yuan was used for basic research programs. A total of 198 research projects were arranged under the national science and technology major projects and 45,700 projects were financed by the National Natural Science Foundation. By the end of 2020, there were altogether 522 state key laboratories in operation, 350 national engineering research centers (national engineering laboratories), 1,636 state-level enterprise technology centers and 212 demonstration centers for business startups and innovation. There were 1,173 state-level technology business incubators[54], and 2,386 national mass makerspaces[55]. A total of 3,639 thousand patents were authorized, up by 40.4 percent over that of the previous year. The number of PCT patent applications accepted[56] was 72 thousand. By the end of 2020, the number of patents in force was 12,193 thousand, of which 2,213 thousand were invention patents from home. The number of invention patents per 10,000 people was estimated to be 15.8. Trademark registration totaled 5,761 thousand, down by 10.1 percent over that of the previous year. A total of 550 thousand technology transfer contracts were signed, representing 2,825.2 billion yuan in value, up by 26.1 percent over that of the previous year.

 

Figure 18: The Expenditure on Research and Experimental Development Activities (R&D) and its Growth Rates 2016-2020

 

 

Table 15: Number of Patents Authorized and Patents in Force in 2020

 

Item

Patents

10,000

Increase over

2019 (%)

 

 

 

Number of patents authorized

363.9

40.4

Of which: domestic

350.4

42.6

Of which: for new inventions

53.0

17.1

Of which: domestic

43.4

22.5

Number of patents in force at the end of the year

1219.3

25.4

Of which: domestic

1111.5

27.9

Of which: for new inventions

305.8

14.5

Of which: domestic

221.3

18.8

 

 

 

 

The year 2020 saw 35 times of successful satellite launches. The successful launch of Chang'e-5 brought home moon samples for the first time, and China’s first Mars exploration mission named Tianwen-1 was successfully launched. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) project officially went online. China's Beidou-3 Navigation Satellite System was officially commissioned. The quantum computer prototype “Jiuzhang” was successfully created. The full-depth deep-sea manned submersible “Fendouzhe” successfully completed the 10,000-meter sea trial.

 

By the end of 2020, there were altogether 852 national quality inspection centers. There were 724 agencies for product quality and management system and service certification, accumulatively 790,000 enterprises were certified. A total of 2,252 national standards were developed or revised in the year, including 1,584 new standards. The qualification rate of manufactured products[57] reached 93.39 percent.

 

In 2020, the post-graduate education enrollment was 3,140 thousand students with 1.107 million new students and 729 thousand graduates. The general tertiary education enrollment was 32.853 million students with 9.675 million new students and 7.972 million graduates. Vocational secondary schools[58] had 16.634 million enrolled students, including 6.447 million new entrants, and 4.849 million graduates. Senior secondary schools had 24.945 million enrolled students, including 8.764 million new entrants, and 7.865 million graduates. Students enrolled in junior secondary schools totaled 49.141 million, including 16.321 million new entrants, and 15.353 million graduates. The country had a primary education enrollment of 107.254 million students, including 18.081 million new entrants, and 16.403 million graduates. There were 881 thousand students enrolled in special education schools, with 149 thousand new entrants and 121 thousand graduates. Kindergartens accommodated 48.183 million children. The number of students graduating from compulsory education reached 95.2 percent of the total enrollment, and the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education reached 91.2 percent.

 

Figure 19: Enrollment in Education 2016-2020

 

 

XI. Culture and Tourism, Public Health and Sports

 

By the end of 2020, there were 2,027 art-performing groups and 3,510 museums in the culture and tourism system throughout China. A total of 3,203 public libraries received[59] 569.53 million people. There were 3,327 cultural centers. Subscribers to cable television programs numbered 210 million, in which 201 million subscribed to digital cable television programs. By the end of 2020, radio broadcasting and television broadcasting coverage rates were 99.4 percent and 99.6 percent respectively. A total of 7,476 episodes of 202 TV series and 116,688 minutes of TV cartoons were made in 2020. The country produced 531 feature movies and 119 popular science movies, documentaries, animation and special movies[60]. A total of 27.7 billion copies of newspapers and 2.0 billion copies of magazines were issued, and 10.1 billion copies of books were published. The average number of books possessed per person[61] was estimated to be 7.24 copies. By the end of the year, there were 4,234 archives in China and 176.59 million files were made accessible to the public. The business revenue of enterprises above the designated size engaged in culture and related industries reached 9,851.4 billion yuan, up by 2.2 percent over that of the previous year on a comparable basis.

 

The year 2020 registered 2.88 billion domestic tourists, down by 52.1 percent over that of the previous year. Of this total, there were 2.07 billion tourists from urban areas, a decrease of 53.8 percent; and 810 million tourists from rural areas, a decrease of 47.0 percent. Domestic tourism revenue was 2,228.6 billion yuan, down by 61.1 percent. Of this total, tourists from urban areas spent 1,796.7 billion yuan, down by 62.2 percent; and tourists from rural areas spent 432.0 billion yuan, down by 55.7 percent.

 

Figure 20: The Person-times of Domestic Tourists and its Growth Rates 2016-2020

 

 

By the end of 2020, there were 1,023,000 medical and health institutions in China, including 35,000 hospitals. Of all the hospitals, 12,000 were public, and 24,000 were private. Of the 971,000 medical and health institutions at grass-root level, there were 36,000 town and township health centers, 35,000 community health service centers, 290,000 clinics and 610,000 village clinics. Of the 14,000 professional public health institutions, 3,384 were disease control and prevention centers and 2,736 were health monitoring institutions. By the end of 2020, there were 10.66 million medical technical personnel in China, including 4.08 million licensed doctors and licensed assistant doctors and 4.71 million registered nurses. The medical and health institutions in China possessed 9.11 million beds, of which, hospitals possessed 7.13 million and township health centers had 1.39 million. The total number of medical visits[62] and hospital discharges[63] in 2020 reached 7.82 billion and 230 million respectively. By the end of 2020, a total of 87,071 confirmed cases of COVID-19 had been reported nationwide, 82,067 infected had been cured and discharged from hospital, and 4,634 people died. A total of 8,177 medical and health institutions across the country provide nucleic acid testing services, with daily nucleic acid testing capacity reached 11.53 million.

 

Figure 21: Year-end Number of Medical Technical Personnel 2016-2020

 

 

There were altogether 3.713 million sports venues[64]. The sports venue area[65] totaled 3.10 billion square meters and the per capita sports venue area was estimated to be 2.20 square meters. In 2020, Chinese athletes won 4 world championships in 3 sports events and broke 1 world record[66]. Chinese physically-challenged athletes won 24 world championships in 6 international sports competitions[67]. The year 2020 saw 37.2 percent of people aged 7 and above frequently participated in physical exercises[68].

 

XII. Resources, Environment and Emergency Management

 

In 2020, the total supply of state-owned land for construction use[69] was 658 thousand hectares, an increase of 5.5 percent over that of the previous year. Of this total, the supply for mining storage was 167 thousand hectares, up by 13.6 percent; that for real estate[70] was 155 thousand hectares, up by 9.3 percent; and that for infrastructure facilities was 337 thousand hectares, up by 0.3 percent.

 

The total stock of water resources in 2020 was 3,096.3 billion cubic meters.

 

In 2020, the total area of afforestation reached 6.77 million hectares, of which 2.89 million hectares were afforested by manpower, accounting for 42.7 percent of the total. The land area improved by grass plantation[71] was 2.83 million hectares. By the end of 2020, there were 474 national natural reserves. A total of 60 thousand square kilometers of land have been saved from soil erosion.

 

Preliminary estimation indicated that the total energy consumption in 2020 amounted to 4.98 billion tons of standard coal equivalent, up by 2.2 percent over that of 2019. The consumption of coal increased by 0.6 percent; crude oil, up by 3.3 percent; natural gas, up by 7.2 percent; and electric power, up by 3.1 percent. The consumption of coal accounted for 56.8 percent of the total energy consumption, 0.9 percentage point lower than that of 2019, while clean energy consumption, such as natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power and wind power accounted for 24.3 percent, 1.0 percentage point higher. The comprehensive energy consumption per unit calcium carbide by key energy-intensive industrial enterprises went down by 2.1 percent, per unit synthetic ammonia up by 0.3 percent, per ton steel down by 0.3 percent and per unit electrolytic aluminium down by 1.0 percent. The standard coal consumption per kilowatt-hour of thermal power generation decreased by 0.6 percent. The carbon dioxide emission per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP was cut by 1.0 percent.

 

Figure 22: The Proportion of Clean Energy Consumption

 

in the Total Energy Consumption 2016-2020

 

 

Area of offshore oceanic water[72] met the national quality standard Grade I and II accounted for 77.4 percent; that met Grade III standard 7.7 percent; and water of Grade IV or inferior quality 14.9 percent.

 

Of the 324 cities subject to noise monitoring program, 4.3 percent enjoyed fairly good environment, 66.4 percent had good environment, 28.7 percent had fair environment, 0.6 percent had poor environment in downtown areas.

 

The average temperature in 2020 was 10.25, down by 0.09 compared with that of the previous year. Typhoons hit China 5 times in 2020.

 

In 2020, natural disasters hit 19.96 million hectares of crops, of which 2.71 million hectares of crops were demolished. Flood, waterlogging and geological disasters caused a direct economic loss of 268.6 billion yuan. Droughts caused a direct economic loss of 24.9 billion yuan. Disasters caused by low temperature, frost and snow made a total direct economic loss of 15.4 billion yuan. Oceanic disasters caused a direct economic loss of 800 million yuan. The country recorded 20 earthquakes with magnitude 5.0 and over, 5 of which caused disasters, causing a direct economic loss about 1.8 billion yuan. The year 2020 witnessed 1,153 forest fires, with 9 thousand hectares of forests damaged.

 

The death toll due to work accidents amounted to 27,412 people. Work accidents in industrial, mining and commercial companies caused 1.301 deaths out of every 100 thousand employees, down by 11.7 percent over that of 2019. The death toll for one million tons of coal produced in coalmines was 0.059 people, down by 28.9 percent. The road traffic death toll per 10 thousand vehicles was 1.66 people, down by 7.8 percent.

 

Notes:

 

1. All figures in this Communiqué are preliminary statistics. Statistics in this Communiqué do not include Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan Province. Due to the rounding-off reasons, the subentries may not add up to the aggregate totals.

 

2. Statistics of the seventh National Population Census undertaken in 2020 will be released in April 2021. Therefore, data about population and employment were not released in this Communiqué and the per capita data in this Communiqué were based on an estimate of the population.

 

3. Gross domestic product (GDP), value added of the three and related industries, regional GDP, per capita GDP and gross national income (GNI) as quoted in this Communiqué are calculated at current prices whereas their growth rates are at constant prices.

 

4. Gross national income, also known as gross national product, refers to the total primary distribution of the income created by all the resident units of a country (or a region) during a certain period of time. It equals to gross domestic product plus the net primary distribution of income from abroad.

 

5. The national energy consumption per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP is calculated at constant prices of 2015.

 

6. The overall labor productivity refers to the ratio between the GDP (at 2015 constant prices) and the total number of persons employed. The number of persons employed in 2020 was an estimate.

 

7. The number of migrant workers includes those who are employed outside their villages and towns for more than six months in the year and those who are engaged in non-agricultural work in their villages and towns for more than six months in the year.

 

8. The producer prices for farm products refer to the prices of farm products sold directly by producers.

 

9. The prices for residence include prices for rent, maintenance and management, water, electricity and fuel etc.

 

10. Impoverished areas cover contiguous poverty-stricken areas and key counties under national poverty alleviation and development program beyond those areas. There were 832 counties altogether. Since 2017, Aksu Prefecture in Xinjiang has also been covered in poverty monitoring.

 

11. High technology manufacturing industry includes manufacture of medicine, manufacture of aerospace vehicle and equipment, manufacture of electronic and communication equipment, manufacture of computers and office equipment, manufacture of medical equipment, manufacture of measuring instrument and equipment and manufacture of optical and photographic equipment.

 

12. Manufacture of equipment includes manufacture of metal products, general purpose equipment, special purpose equipment, automobiles, railway, ship, aerospace and other transport equipment, electrical machinery and apparatus, computers, communication and other electric equipment and measuring instrument and machinery.

 

13. Service enterprises above the designated size, refer to legal entities of transport, storage and post, information transmission, software and information technology services, water conservancy, environment and public facilities management, and health with annual business revenue of 20 million yuan or above; legal entities of real estate (excluding real estate development and operation), leasing and business services, scientific research and technology services and education with annual business revenue of 10 million yuan or above; and legal entities of services to households, repair and other services and culture, sports and entertainment, and social work with annual business revenue of 5 million yuan or above.

 

14. Strategic emerging service industries refer to the related service sectors of information technology of new generation, manufacture of high-end equipment, new materials, biotech, new energy vehicles, new energy, energy-saving and environmental protection and digital creative industries, and service industries related to new technology and new entrepreneurship. The growth rate of the business revenue of the strategic emerging service industries in 2020 is calculated on a comparable basis.

 

15. Investment in high technology industries refers to investment in six high technology manufacturing industries, including the manufacture of medicine and manufacture of aerospace vehicle and equipment, and nine high technology service industries, including information service and e-commerce service.

 

16. Online retail sales refer to the retail sales of goods and services realized through internet trading platforms (online platforms mainly in trading physical commodities, including self-built websites and third-party platforms).

 

17. The eastern areas include 10 provinces and municipalities: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong and Hainan; the central areas cover 6 provinces: Shanxi, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei and Hunan; the western areas include 12 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang; the northeastern areas include 3 provinces: Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang.

 

18. Output data of some products were verified and adjusted in 2019; the growth rates of output in 2020 are calculated on a comparable basis.

 

19. Thermal power refers to electricity generated by coal, oil, gas, residual heat, pressure and gas, waste incineration and biomass.

 

20. The data include 305.66 million tons of steel which has been reprocessed among enterprises.

 

21. Some installed power generation capacity was not listed (e.g. geothermal).

 

22. The growth rates and rate changes of financial indicators of industrial enterprises above the designated size in 2020 are calculated on a comparable basis due to adjustments of data coverage in the statistical programmes, statistical law enforcement and removal of duplicated data.

 

23. Capacity utilization rate refers to the ratio of the actual production to the production capacity (in terms of value). Actual production refers to the total industrial output value during the enterprise’s reporting period. Production capacity refers to the production which can be realized and sustained for a long term under the condition of the supply of labor force, materials, fuel and transportation guaranteed and the production equipment in proper operation. 

 

24. The total freight traffic and flows include the traffic and flows by railways, highways, waterways and civil aviation and the growth rates in 2020 are calculated on a comparable basis. Due to the change of data source of certain pipeline transportation of petroleum and gas caused by the foundation of PipeChina, data of pipeline transportation are being verified.

 

25. The turnover of post services is calculated at constant prices of 2010.

 

26. The turnover of telecommunication services is calculated at constant prices of 2015.

 

27. Fixed broadband internet users refer to those who subscribed to the telecommunication enterprises and access the Internet through xDSL, FTTx+LAN, FTTH/0 and other broadband access ways as well as general dedicated lines at the end of the reporting period.

 

28. Fixed fiber-optic broadband internet users refer to those who subscribed to the telecommunication enterprises and access the Internet through FTTH or FTT0 at the end of the reporting period.

 

29. The number of mobile internet surfers refers the number of people who have accessed the internet through mobile phones.

 

30. Software and information technology services industry includes software development, integrated circuit design, information system integration and internet of things technology services, operation maintenance services, information processing and storage support services, IT consulting services, digital content services and other IT services industry.

 

31. The total retail sales of consumer goods from 2016 to 2019 have been revised based on the fourth National Economic Census and the related programmes.

 

32. The figure of the investment in fixed assets in 2019 was revised according to the results of the fourth national economic census, statistical law enforcement and the statistical survey method reform and programmes. The growth rates in 2020 are calculated on a comparable basis.

 

33. See Note 17.

 

34. Private investment in fixed assets refers to investment in the construction or purchase of fixed assets by domestic collective, private and individual-owned enterprises and organizations or their holding enterprises (with absolute holding and relative holding enterprises).

 

35. Investment in infrastructure includes transportation, postal service, telecommunication, radio, TV and satellite transmission, internet and related services, water conservancy, environment and public facilities management.

 

36. The investment in real estate includes the investment in real estate development, construction of buildings for own use, property management, intermediary services and other real estate investment.

 

37. The number of housing units of the poverty-stricken rural households with their economic status registered at the local governments that were started to be rebuilt or renovated includes the 641.6 thousand units in stock from 2019 and another 100.5 thousand unit found in the re-examination of the poverty reduction.

 

38. The Belt and Road refers to the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road.

 

39. The value of imports and exports of goods by European Union excludes data of the Great Britain, and the growth rate is calculated on a comparable basis.

 

40. The AFRE (flow) refers to the total volume of financing provided by the financial system to the real economy within a certain period of time.

 

41. The AFRE (stock) refers to the outstanding financing provided by the financial system to the real economy (domestic non-financial enterprises and persons) at the end of a period of time (a month, a quarter or a year).

 

42. Inclusive finance loans include loans to micro and small businesses with single-client credit line under 10 million yuan, operating loans to self-employed businesses and owners of micro and small businesses, producing and operating loans to farmers, consumption loans to registered people living in poverty, venture guarantee loans and student loans.

 

43. Funds raised through Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are calculated by the money raised on the listing date, and the funds raised include the actual exchanged convertible bonds, which were 99.5 billion yuan in 2019 and 119.5 billion yuan in 2020.

 

44. National Equities Exchange and Quotations, also called “the New Over-the-Counter Market”, is a national securities exchange established upon approval by the State Council in 2012. Preferred stocks were excluded from funds raised by listed companies in National Equities Exchange and Quotations. Funds raised by shares are calculated by the disclosure date of the insurance report.

 

45. Corporate debenture bonds include debt financing instruments of non-financial businesses, enterprise bonds, corporate bonds and convertible bonds.

 

46. The premium of primary insurance received by the insurance companies refers to the premium income from primary insurance contracts confirmed by the insurance companies.

 

47. The median of per capita income refers to the per capita income of household lied in the middle of all surveyed households which are ranked from low to high (or high to low) based on per capita income level.

 

48. The income quintile refers to the five equal partitions of all surveyed households, who are ranked from low to high based on per capita income level. The top 20 percent with the highest income are classified as high-income group, and the other four levels are upper-middle-income group, middle-income group, lower-middle-income group and low-income group.

 

49. The consumption expenditure on services refers to the spending by households on services for daily lives including catering, education, culture and recreation and medical services.

 

50. Rural residents living in extreme poverty refer to the aged, the disabled and the minor under 16 years of age in rural areas who have no ability to work, no sources of income and no statutory obligors to provide for them, bring them up or support them, or whose statutory obligors have no ability to fulfill their obligations.

 

51. Temporary assistance refers to emergent and transitional assistance the government provides to families or individuals who experience hardships because of emergencies, unexpected harm, major diseases or other unusual factors and are not covered by other forms of social assistance programs or still suffer hardships after receiving other social assistance programs.

 

52. Direct assistance includes inpatient and outpatient assistance provided by medical insurance departments and direct assistance provided by other relevant departments.

 

53. The beds provided by social welfare institutions include beds provided by adoption agencies, aid agencies and community agencies.

 

54. The state-level technology business incubators are technology-based business startup service providers consistent with the Administrative Measures for Technology Business Incubators that provide physical space, shared facilities and professional services with the mission of advancing transformation of technological achievements, cultivating technological enterprises and fostering the entrepreneurial spirit. They should be approved and accredited by the Ministry of Science and Technology.

 

55. The national mass makerspaces are new service platform for entrepreneurship and innovation that are in conformity with the Guidelines on Developing Mass Makerspaces and are reviewed and registered by the Ministry of Science and Technology in accordance with the Provisional Registration Regulations on National Mass Makerspaces.

 

56. The number of PCT patent applications accepted refers to the number of PCT patent application accepted by the State Intellectual Property Office which acts as the receiving office of PCT patent application. PCT is the abbreviation of Patent Cooperation Treaty, which is a treaty for international cooperation in the field of patents.

 

57. The qualification rate of manufactured products is the ratio of the samples that have passed the sampling quality test, the process of which follows certain methods, procedure and standard, to the total amount of the sampled products. The survey samples cover 29 sectors of the manufacturing industry.

 

58. Vocational secondary schools include regular specialized secondary schools, adult specialized secondary schools, vocational high schools and skilled workers schools.

 

59. The people received by the public libraries refer to the number of people who visit libraries and use library services in the year, including borrowing and reading books, consultation and attending readers’ programs.

 

60. Special movies refer to those using different display modes in terms of projection techniques, equipment and program as compared with the ordinary cinemas, such as IMAX movies, 3D movies, 4D movies, multidimensional movies and full dome movies.

 

61. The average number of books possessed per person refers to the average number of books published in the year that can be possessed per person in China.

 

62. The total number of medical visits refers to the number of people receiving medical services, including outpatient services, emergency treatment, home visits, appointment-based diagnosis and treatment, health check-up of a specific item, and health consultation and guidance (excluding health lectures).

 

63. The number of hospital discharges refers to the number of inpatients discharged from hospitals in the reporting period, including those who are discharged from hospitals or transferred to other medical institutions following doctors’ advice, discharged from hospitals without doctors’ permission, dead or other situations. The number of people who are recovered from family sickbeds is excluded.

 

64. The sports venues belonging to armed forces and railway system are excluded in the census on sports venues.

 

65. The sports venue area refers to area used for physical training, sports competitions and physical fitness.

 

66. The year 2020 has seen a significant decline of international sports events due to COVID-19, and the number of Chinese athletes winning world championships and setting world records has decreased compared with previous years.

 

67. Data covers the international sports events from January to March 2020 (participation in international events was suspended since April 2020 due to COVID-19).

 

68. The proportion of people who frequently participate in physical exercises comes from the National Fitness Activities Survey in 2020. People who frequently participate in physical exercises refer to those who participate in physical exercises at least 3 times a week, with each time lasting for at least 30 minutes and having a moderate intensity and above.

 

69. Total supply of state-owned land for construction use refers to the total amount of state-owned land for construction use with the land-use right transferred, allocated or leased to units or individuals through signed transaction contracts and allocation decisions by the municipal or county governments according to annual land supply plan and in line with relevant laws in the reporting period.

 

70. Land used for real estate refers to the sum of land used for commercial service and for residence.

 

71. The land area improved by grass plantation refers to the area of increased forage grass by adopting measures such as sowing and cultivation plus the area where primitive vegetation and the ecology of grasslands have been improved by measures such as restraining the content of salt, alkali and sand, improving the quality of soil and fencing the forests.

 

72. Offshore oceanic water quality is evaluated by the area method.

 

Data Sources:  

 

In this Communiqué, data of newly increased employed people in urban areas, registered unemployment rate in urban areas, social security and skilled workers schools are from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security; data of foreign exchange reserves and exchange rates are from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange; data of environment monitoring and the carbon dioxide emission per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP are from the Ministry of Ecology and Environment; data of finance are from the Ministry of Finance; data of market entities, quality inspection, the formulation and revision of national standards and qualification rate of manufactured products are from the State Administration for Market Regulation; data of output of aquatic products and area of farmland newly equipped with effective water-saving irrigation systems are from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs; data of production of timber, area of afforestation, land area improved by grass plantation, and national natural reserves are from the National Forestry and Grassland Administration; data of area of farmland newly equipped with irrigation system, water resources and land newly saved from soil erosion are from the Ministry of Water Resources; data of installed power generation capacity, new power transformer equipment with a capacity of 220 kilovolts and above and electricity consumption are from the China Electricity Council; data of volume of freight handled by ports, container shipping of ports, highway transportation, waterway transportation, new and rebuilt highways and new throughput capacity of berths for over 10,000-tonnage ships are from the Ministry of Transport; data of railway transportation, new railways put into operation, new double-track railways put into operation and electrified railways put into operation are from China Railway; data of civil aviation and new civil transportation airports are from the Civil Aviation Administration of China; data of motor vehicles for civilian use and traffic accidents are from the Ministry of Public Security; data of postal service are from the State Post Bureau; data of telecommunication, software revenue, and new lines of optical-fiber cables are from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology;  data of internet users and internet coverage are from China Internet Network information Center; data of housing units rebuilt or renovated in rundown urban areas and for poverty-stricken rural households with economic status registered at the local governments in the fight against poverty are from the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development; data of imports and exports of goods are from the General Administration of Customs; data of imports and exports of services, foreign direct investment, outbound direct investment, overseas contracted projects and overseas labor contracts are from the Ministry of Commerce; data of tax and fee cuts are from the State Taxation Administration; data of monetary finance and corporate debenture bonds are from the People’s Bank of China; data of funds raised through domestic exchange markets are from China Securities Regulatory Commission; data of the insurance sector are from China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission; data of medical insurance, maternity insurance, people financed to participate in basic medical insurance program, and direct assistance recipients are from the National Healthcare and Security Administration; data of urban and rural minimum living allowances, relief and assistance granted to rural residents living in extreme poverty, temporary assistance and social services are from the Ministry of Civil Affairs; data of entitled people are from the Ministry of Veterans Affairs; data of national science and technology major projects, state key laboratories, state-level technology business incubators, national mass makerspaces and technology transfer contracts are from the Ministry of Science and Technology; data of natural science foundation projects are from the National Natural Science Foundation; data of national engineering research centers (national engineering laboratories), enterprise technical centers and demonstration centers for business startups and innovation are from the National Development and Reform Commission; data of patents and trademarks are from the National Intellectual Property Administration; data of satellite launches are from the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense; data of education are from the Ministry of Education; data of art-performing groups, museums, public libraries, cultural centers and tourism are from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism; data of television and radio programs are from the National Radio and Television Administration; data of movies are from the China Film Administration; data of newspapers, magazines and books are from the National Press and Publication Administration; data of files are from the State Archives Administration; data of medical care and health are from the National Health Commission; data of sports are from the General Administration of Sport; data of physically-challenged athletes are from the China Disabled Persons’ Federation; data of supply of state-owned land for construction use and direct economic loss caused by oceanic disasters are from the Ministry of Natural Resources; data of average temperature and typhoons are from the China Meteorological Administration; data of areas of crops hit by natural disasters, direct economic loss caused by flood, waterlogging and geological disasters, direct economic loss caused by droughts, direct economic loss caused by low temperature, frost and snow, forest fires, areas of forests damaged and workplace accidents are from the Ministry of Emergency Management; data of the number of earthquakes and direct economic loss caused by earthquakes are from the China Earthquake Administration; all the other data are from the National Bureau of Statistics.

 

In case of any differences between English translation and the original Chinese text, the Chinese edition shall prevail.

 
Annex
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