Explanatory Notes on Main Statistical Indicators
Cultivated Land refers to land mainly for the regular cultivation of farm crops (including vegetables), with some fruit trees, mulberry trees and others, covers cultivated land, newly-developed land, reclaimed land, consolidated land, fallow, beach land that can guarantee one harvest per year on average. It also covers fixed ditch, canal, road and sill (ridge) with width less than 1 meter in the South and 2 meters in the North, lands planted temporarily with herbs, grass, flowers and nursery stocks, and other cultivated land with temporary change of use.
Garden Land refers to land for intensive cultivation of perennial woody plants and herbs to collect fruits, leaves, roots, stems and juice, with a covering rate over 50% and plant number per mu over 70% of rational plant number. Land for nursery is included.
Forestland refers to land for planting arbor, bamboo, bush shrub and land in coastal zones for planting mangrove. It includes slash, but not the green belts in residential area, forests requested for railway and highway, and the dike protection forest around rivers and ditches.
Pastureland refers to land mainly for the growth of herbs.
Volume of Runoff refers to the total volume of water running through a certain cross section of a river during a certain period of time, reflecting the water resource condition in a country or a region. The formula for calculating volume of runoff is as follows:
Drainage Area Each river has its own main stream and branches to form the water system of the river. Each river has its own catchment’s area, which is also called as the drainage area of the river.
Out-flowing Rivers refer to rivers directly or indirectly flowing into the sea. The area providing water to the out-flowing rivers is called as out-flowing area.
Inland Rivers refer to rivers in inland dry areas that die away in desert on the way or infuse into inland lakes. The area providing water to the inland rivers is called as inland area.
Resources refer to useful minerals, with solid state, liquid state, gaseity,
due to the geological process. Minerals are important natural resources, and
important material base for social development. At present, there are more than
170 types of minerals discovered in
Ensured Mineral Reserves refer to the actual mineral reserves, which equal to the proven mineral reserves (including industrial reserves and prospective reserves) minus extracted parts and underground losses.
Temperature refers to the air temperature.
Monthly average temperature is the summation of average daily temperature of one month divided by the actual days of that particular month.
Annual average temperature is the summation of monthly average of a year divided by 12 months.
Average Annual Relative Humidity refers to the ratio of actual water vapour pressure to the saturation water vapour pressure under the current temperature. The calculation method is the same as that of temperature.
Volume of Precipitation refers to the deepness of liquid state or solid state (thawed) water falling from the sky to the ground that has not been evaporated, infiltrated or run off. The calculation method is as follows:
Monthly precipitation is the summation of daily precipitation of a month.
Annual precipitation is the summation of 12 months precipitation of a year.
Annual Sunshine Hours refer to the actual hours of sun irradiating the earth, usually expressed in hours. The calculation method is the same as that of the precipitation.
Total Water Resources refers to total volume of surface water and groundwater and is measured as run-off for surface water and replenishment of groundwater with rainfall in local area.
Surface Water Resources refers to total volume of year by year renewable dynamic resources which exist in rivers, lakes, glaciers and other surface water and are the natural run-off of rivers.
Groundwater Resources refers to total volume of year by year renewable dynamic resources which exist in saturation acquifers of groundwater and are measured as replenishment of groundwater with rainfall and surface water.
Duplicated Measurement between Surface Water and Groundwater refers to mutual exchange between surface water and groundwater, i.e. run-off of rivers includes some depletion into groundwater while groundwater includes some replenishment from surface water.
Water Supply refers to gross water of various sources supplied to consumers, including losses during distribution.
Surface Water Supply refers to withdrawals by surface water supply system, broken down with storage, flow, pumping and transfer. Supply from storage projects includes withdrawals from reservoirs; supply from flow includes withdrawals from rivers and lakes with natural flows no matter if there are locks or not; supply from pumping projects includes withdrawals from rivers or lakes with pumping stations; and supply from transfer refers to water supplies transferred from first-level regions of water resources or independent river drainage areas to others, and should not be covered under supplies of storage, flow and pumping.
Groundwater Supply refers to withdrawals from supplying wells, broken down with shallow layer freshwater, deep layer freshwater and slightly brackish water. Groundwater supply for urban areas includes water mining by both waterworks and own wells of enterprises.
Other Water Supply Sources include supplies by waste-water treatment, rain collection, seawater desalinization and other water projects.
Water Use refers to gross water used by various water users, including losses during distribution.
Water Use by Agriculture includes uses of water by irrigation of farming fields, forestry and orchards, irrigation of grassland, replenishment of fishing farms and water used by animal husbandry.
Water Use by Industry refers to new withdrawals of water, excluding reuse of water within enterprises.
Water Use by Living Consumption includes use of water for living consumption in both urban and rural areas. Urban water use by living consumption is composed of household use and public use (including tertiary industry and construction). Rural water use by living consumption includes water used by households.
Water Use by Ecological and Environmental Protection includes replenishment of rivers and lakes and use for urban environment.
Common Industrial Solid Wastes Produced refers to the industrial solid wastes that are not listed in the 《National Catalogue of Hazardous Wastes》, or not regarded as hazardous according to the national hazardous waste identification standards (GB5085), solid waste-Extraction procedure for leaching toxicity (GB5086) and solid waste-Extraction procedure for leaching toxicity (GB/T 15555). The calculation formula is as followed:
Common Industrial Solid Wastes Produced = (common industrial solid wastes utilized – the proportion of utilized stock of previous years) + common industrial solid waste stock + (common industrial solid wastes disposed – the proportion of disposed stock of previous years) + common industrial solid wastes discharged.
Common Industrial Solid Wastes Comprehensively Utilized refers to volume of solid wastes from which useful materials can be extracted or which can be converted into usable resources, energy or other materials by means of reclamation, processing, recycling and exchange (including utilizing in the year the stocks of industrial solid wastes of the previous year) during the report period, e.g. being used as agricultural fertilizers, building materials or as material for paving road. Examples of such utilizations include fertilizers, building materials and road materials. The information shall be collected by the producing units of the wastes.
Common Industrial Solid Wastes Disposed refers to the quantity of industrial solid wastes which are burnt or specially disposed using other methods to alter the physical, chemical and biological properties and thus to reduce or eliminate the hazard, or placed ultimately in the sites meeting the requirements for environmental protection during the report period.
Stock of Common Industrial Solid Wastes refers to the volume of solid wastes placed in special facilities or special sites by enterprises for purposes of utilization or disposal during the report period. The sites or facilities should take measures against dispersion, loss, seepage, and air and water contamination.
Common Industrial Solid Wastes Discharged refers to the volume of industrial solid wastes dumped or discharged by producing enterprises to disposal facilities or to other sites.
Hazardous Wastes Produced refers to the volume of actual hazardous wastes produced by surveyed samples throughout the year of the survey. Hazardous waste refers to those included in the national hazardous wastes catalogue or specified as any one of the following properties in light of the national hazardous wastes identification standards and methods: explosive, ignitable, oxidizable, toxic, corrosive or liable to cause infectious diseases or lead to other dangers. The report of this indicator should follow the 《National Catalogue of Hazardous Wastes》 (the NO.1 Ministry Order in 2008 by the Ministry of Environment Protection and National Development and Reform Commission).
Hazardous Wastes Utilized refers to the volume of hazardous wastes that are used to extract materials for raw materials or fuel throughout the year of the survey, including those utilized by the producing enterprise and those provided to other enterprises for utilization.
Hazardous Wastes Disposed refers to the quantity of hazardous wastes which are burnt or specially disposed using other methods to alter the physical, chemical and biological properties and thus to reduce or eliminate the hazard, or placed ultimately in the sites meeting the requirements for environmental protection during the report period.
Stock of Hazardous Wastes refers to the volume of hazardous wastes specially packaged and placed in special facilities or special sites by enterprises. The special stock facilities should meet the requirements set in relevant environment protection laws and regulations such as “Pollution Control Standards for Hazardous Waste Stock” (GB18597-2001) in regard to package of hazardous waste, location, design, safety, monitoring and shutdown, and take measures against dispersion, loss, seepage, and air and water contamination.
Consumption Wastes Transported refers to volume of consumption wastes collected and transported to disposal factories or sites during the reference period. Consumption wastes are solid wastes produced from urban households or from service activities for urban households, and solid wastes regarded by laws and regulations as urban consumption wastes, including those from households, commercial activities, markets, cleaning of streets, public sites, offices, schools, factories, mining units and other sources.
Ratio of Consumption Wastes Treated refers to consumption wastes treated over that produced. In practical statistics, as it is difficult to estimate, the volume of consumption wastes produced is replaced with that transported. It is calculated as:
Forest Area refers to the area of trees and bamboo grow with a canopy density above 0.2 degree, the area of shrubby tree according to regulations of the government, the area of forest land inside farm land and the area of trees planted by the side of villages, farm houses and along roads and rivers.
Area of Man-made Forests refer to the area of stable growing forests, planted manually or by airplanes, with a survival rate of 80% or higher of the designed number of trees per hectare, or with a canopy density of 0.20 degree or above after 3-5 years of manual planting or 5-7 years of airplane planting.
Total Standing Stock Volume refers to the total stock volume of trees growing in land, including trees in forest, trees in sparse forest, scattered trees and trees planted by the side of villages, farm houses and along roads and rivers.
Stock Volume of Forest refers to total stock volume of wood growing in forest area, which shows the total size and level of forest resources of a country or a region.
Area of Afforestation refers to the total area of land suitable for afforestation, including barren hills, idle land, sand dunes, non-timber forest land, woodland and “grain for green” land, on which acres of forests, trees and shrubs are planted through manual planting.
Manual Planting refers to technical measures of sowing, planting seedlings and divided transplanting on land suitable for afforestation, including barren hills, idle land, sand dunes, non-timber forest land, woodland and “grain for green” land to increase vegetation coverage rate of forests.
Airplane Planting refers to technical measures of airplane planting with of appropriate artificial help taken under the influence of natural power to restore certain amount of seedlings on land suitable for afforestation, including barren hills, idle land, sand dunes, non-timber forest land, woodland and “grain for green” land, with an aim of increasing vegetation coverage rate of forests.
No-stocked Land and Sparse Forest Land Newly Closed for Afforestation This Year refers to the area of sparse forest land, brush shrub land, stump land, burned land, barren hills, barren land, sand dunes where trees can naturally grow or sprout, which are demarcated, closed down and returned to forest, shrubbery and grass land with the assistance of special measures by men.
Timber Forests refer to forests which are mainly for the production of timber, including bamboo groves planted to harvest bamboos.
By-product Forests refer to forests that mainly produce fruits, nuts, edible oil, beverages, indigents, raw materials and medicine materials. By-product forests are planted to harvest the fruits, leaves, bark or liquid of trees, and consume them as food or raw materials for the manufacturing industry, such as tea-oil trees, tung oil trees, walnut trees, camphor trees, tea bushes, mulberry trees, fruit trees, etc.
Protection Forests refer to forests, trees and bushes planted mainly for protection or preservation purpose, including water resource conservation forests, water and soil conservation forests, windbreak and dune-fixing forests, farmland and pasture protection forests, riverside protection forests, roadside protection forests, etc.
Fuel Forests refer to forests planted mainly for fuels.
Forests for Special Purpose refer to forests planted mainly for national defence, environment protection or scientific experiments, including national defence forests, experimental forests, mother-tree forests, environment protection forests, scenery forests, trees in historical or scenic spots, forests in natural reserves.
Wetlands refer to marshland and peat bog, whether natural or man-made, permanent or temporary; water covered areas, whether stagnant or flowing, with fresh or semi-fresh or salty water that is less than 6 meters deep at low tide; as well as coral beach, weed beach, mud beach, mangrove, river outlet, rivers, fresh-water marshland, marshland forests, lakes, salty bog and salt lakes along the coastal areas.
Natural Reserves refer to number of certain areas of land, or waters that have been set aside and put under special protection and management in order to protect natural environment and natural resources, and promote the sustainable development of national economy. They are subject to formal approval from governments of various levels. According to the protected targets, natural reserves can be divided into three categories: reserves of natural ecological system, natural reserves of wildlife species, and natural heritage of historical significance.Scenic spots and cultural preservation zones are not included.
Landslides refer to the geological phenomenon of unstable rocks and earth on slopes sliding down along certain soft surface as a result of gravitational force.
Collapse refers to the geological phenomenon of large mass of rocks or earth suddenly collapsing from the mountain or cliff as a result of gravitational force.
Mud-rock Flow refers to the sudden rush of flood torrents containing large amount of mud and rocks in mountainous areas.
Land Subside refers to the geological phenomenon of surface rocks or earth subsiding into holes or pits as a result of natural or human factors.
Number of Forest Fires refers to the number of fires in forests, woods and woodland outside of the downtown areas of cities. In light of the area plagued by fires and the number of casualties, forest fires can be categorized into usual forest fires, relatively larger fires, serious forest fires and extraordinary serous forest fires: 1). Usual forest fires: the destructed forest area is less than 1 hectare, or the fire erupts in other woodland, or the number of deaths is no less than 1 but less than 3, or the number of seriously injured persons is no less than 1 but less than 10 persons. 2). Relatively larger forest fires: the destructed forest area is no less than 1 hectare but less than 100 hectares, or the number of deaths is no less than 3 but less than 10, or the number of seriously injured persons is no less than 10 but less than 50 persons. 3). Serious forest fires: the destructed forest area is no less than 100 hectares but less than 1000 hectares, or the number of deaths is no less than 10 but less than 30, or the number of seriously injured persons is no less than 50 but u less than 100 persons. 4). Extraordinary serious forest fires: the destructed forest area is no less than 1000 hectares, or the number of deaths is no less than 30, or the number of seriously injured persons is no less than 100 persons.
Forest Harmful Organisms refer to the diseases, pests，rats and harmful plants that plague forests,wood, desert and wetland vegetation.
Environmental Emergencies refer to environmental emergencies that caused or likely to cause significant causalities, serious property damages and pose a major threat and damage to the economic, social or political stability of the country or a region, or have significant social impact that related to the public safety.
Number of Earthquakes the number of earthquakes of all magnitude that cause damages (including casualties or economic losses).