I. Main Contents and Statistical Scopes
The data in this chapter show the basic conditions of agricultural production and rural economy, including mainly cultivated land, quantity of agricultural machinery, output of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, output of major products, facilities of water conservancy and efforts to eliminate water-logging and combat alkalinity, productive fixed assets owned by rural households, basic conditions of State-owned farms.
Statistics on agriculture cover all agricultural production activities except horse raising for military purpose and agricultural production activities undertaken by agriculture research institutions. In other words, included in agriculture statistics are production activities in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery undertaken by rural economic units of various types and by rural households; production activities of farms specializing in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery; production activities in agriculture undertaken by government agencies, institutions, schools and military units; production activities in agriculture undertaken by collective farms run by townships and villages; and production activities in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery undertaken by manufacturing and mining enterprises.
(1) Agriculture: refers to cultivation of farm crops, including cereals, beans, tuber crops, cotton, oil-bearing crops, sugar crops, hemp, tobacco leaves, vegetables, gardening plants, fruits, nuts, crops for beverages and spices, medicinal herbs and other farm crops.
(2) Forestry: includes the planting of trees (excluding the operations of planting, management and harvesting on tea plantations, mulberry fields and orchards), cutting and transport of timber and bamboo and collection of forest products.
(3) Animal husbandry: includes the raising and grazing of domestic animals and poultry, and the hunting and raising of wild animals.
(4) Fishery: includes cultivation and catching of aquatic animals and seaweed.
(5) Services in support of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery: include supporting services to production activities in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery but do not include activities of science and technology and professional services.
Rural social and economic statistics cover social and economic activities in all townships except county towns.
II. Data Sources and Survey Methods
(1) Data on agricultural production (Table 13-1 to Table 13-6 and Table 13-13 to Table 13-20) are provided by the Department of Rural Social and Economic Survey of the NBS using data from the Statistical Reporting System on Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery; the Statistical Reporting System on Agricultural Output and Price and the Statistical Reporting System on the Basic Condition of Social and Economic Activities of Counties .
Statistical Reporting System on Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery is composed of three parts:
Firstly, it is the sample survey conducted by the nation taking the province as the population on major farm crops such as grain and cotton, on animal husbandry such as hog, cattle, sheep and poultry, and a sample survey on 500 pig output counties taking the county as the population.
Secondly, it is the comprehensive reporting system, statistical reporting forms are used on agricultural production conditions, tropical farm crops, garden crops, agricultural facilities and other poultry. Survey methodologies are determined by individual provincial (autonomous region, municipal) statistical bureau.
Thirdly, the statistical reporting forms of forestry and fishery industries are from forestry department and fishery department respectively, the survey methodologies are determined by relevant departments.
The Statistical Reporting System on the Basic Condition of Social and Economic Activities of Counties is a special report forms system designed by the NBS to understand the basic conditions of social and economic activities at county, township and rural level. Under this survey system, a complete enumeration is conducted every 5 years to collect information on the basic conditions of all villages, and a complete enumeration is conducted every year in counties (cities, districts and banners) and towns (townships).
(2) Data on the basic conditions of the State-owned farms come from the statistical reports tabulated by the Bureau of Reclamation, Ministry of Agriculture. The statistical scope covers 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government. Data are collected from the grassroots units in accordance with the statistical reporting scheme whereby reporting is done level by level for aggregation.
(3) Data on irrigation and reservoirs, data on efforts to eliminate water-logging, to prevent floods by water control and to combat alkalinity as well as data on the facilities of water conservancy and the area of water-logging eliminated and the improved area of saline-alkaline land come mainly from statistical reports of the Ministry of Water Resources. The statistical scope includes provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government. Data are collected from individual counties in accordance with the statistical reporting system and are tabulated and reported level by level. Data on some special indicators, such as the number of irrigated areas, large reservoirs and the medium-sized and small reservoirs that cut across counties are collected directly by the prefectures and reported to the provincial departments of water resources.