Explanatory Notes on Main Statistical Indicators





Gross Domestic Product (GDP)  reflects the total value of goods produced and services provided by the Macao Special Administrative Region in a year. GDP estimates in this statistical yearbook are compiled under both the expenditure and the production approaches. The expenditure-based GDP is measured as the sum of household consumption expenditure; government final consumption expenditure; gross fixed capital formation; changes in inventories; and net exports (exports less imports) of goods and services. The production-based GDP, which is measured as the sum of gross value added of all economic activities, can be used to evaluate the sectoral structure of Macao.

Infant Mortality Rate  Number of infants died under one year old per 1,000 live births within the reference period.

Rate of Natural Increase  Difference between births and deaths per 1,000 population within the reference period.

Crude Birth Rate  Live births per 1,000 population within the reference period.

Crude Mortality Rate  Deaths per 1,000 population within the reference period.

Regular Education  Systematic academic programmes designated, in principle, for children and juveniles to access/progress from pre-primary education to tertiary education.

Regular education has to satisfy the following criteria:

Three pre-requisites are applicable 

-Programme has a duration of at least one academic year;

-Specific requirement for admission;

-Has examination or specific assessment procedures.

Pre-primary Education Designated for children between 3-5 years old. All children reaching 3 years old as at 31st December of the enrolment year are eligible.

Primary Education  Has a duration of 6 years. Children completing pre-primary education or reaching 6 years old as at 31st December of the enrolment year are eligible to the first year of primary education. The maximum age of attending primary education is 15.

Secondary Education  Comprises 2 stages, viz. junior secondary and senior secondary. Pre-university course is also considered as secondary education.

(1)Junior secondary education has a duration of 3 years. Students completing primary education are eligible. The maximum age for this level is 18; however, under special circumstances, schools can accept enrolment outside this age limit.

(2)Senior secondary education has a duration of 2-3 years. Students completing junior secondary are eligible. The maximum age for this level is 21; however, under special circumstances, schools can accept enrolment outside this age limit.

Vocational Technical Secondary Education  Aims to provide vocational and technical training to elementary and intermediate personnel.

Higher Education  Degree or non-degree programmes offered by universities, polytechnic or equivalent institutes.

Special Education  Programmes designated for students with mental, sensory, corporal, communication or other problems.

Adult Education  Systematic learning activities organized outside regular education that are offered to individuals aged 15 or above.

Labour Force  Individuals aged 14 or over who are available to participate in the production of goods and/or services. It comprises the employed population and unemployed population.

Employed Population  Individuals aged 14 and above who have worked at least 1 hour during the reference period, for pay, profits or family gains, in cash or in kind. It also includes individuals who have a job and are absent from work but maintain a formal job attachment with the employer, or company owners who are temporarily not working due to specific reasons.

Unemployed Population  Individuals aged 14 or over who, during the reference period, do not have a job or formal job attachment, but are available to work for pay or run a business at any time and have sought work during the last 30 days.

Underemployed Population  The employed population who, regardless of their status in employment, worked involuntarily for less than 35 hours during the reference period, and have sought or are available to take on additional work.

Labour Force Participation Rate  The proportion of labour force in the Macao population aged 14 or over.

Unemployment Rate  The proportion of the unemployed in the labour force.

Underemployment Rate  The proportion of the underemployed in the labour force.

Visitor  Any person travelling to a place (i.e. Macao) other than that of his/her usual environment for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

Hotel Occupancy Rate  The percentage of rooms occupied by guests to the total number of available rooms.

Imports  Entry of foreign produced commodities to Macao, excluding re-imports and transit.

Exports  Commodities transported out of Macao, excluding temporary exports and transit goods.

Domestic Exports  Transport of Macao produced commodities out of Macao.

Re-exports  Transport of commodities previously imported out of Macao, without processing; even with processing, is not qualified to use Macao as the origin of the commodity.

Transit  Commodities passing by Macao to the next destination.

Country of Origin  Country or territory where the crops are grown, minerals are mined and products are manufactured. If a production process is carried out in two or more countries or territories, the origin will be the country or territory where the processing of the merchandise takes its final form. Repacking, sorting or mixing is not considered as the final phase of processing. When a country has specific rules regarding the country of origin on merchandise imports, those rules shall prevail.

Country of Destination  The final country or territory where the goods are delivered, irrespective of interruption during transportation. As far as no commercial exchange has taken place in the transit country or territory, the final country or territory arrived is considered as the destination.

Terms of Trade Index  Ratio of the unit value index of exports of goods to that of imports of goods.

Housing Unit  Division(s) or attachment(s) of a permanent building. Each housing unit has an independent entrance to the common area of the building, can be registered legally as separate property and transacted independently.

Gross Floor Area  Sum of the area of every floor in a building, measuring from the outer surface of the wall, including lobby, staircase, lift landings and common space.

Consumer Price Index  reflects the price change of a representative “basket” of goods and services consumed by households of Macao at different periods.

Money Supply (M1)  refers to the sum of currency in circulation and demand deposits.

Money Supply (M2)  refers to the sum of money supply (M1) and quasi-monetary liabilities; the latter consist of savings deposits, notice deposits, time deposits and certificates of deposits.

Financial Transactions  comprise financial assets and financial liabilities.