T-Explanatory Notes on Main Statistical Indicators

Regular Institutions of Higher Learning  refer to educational establishments set up according to the government evaluation and approval procedures, enrolling graduates from senior secondary schools and providing higher education courses and training for senior professionals. They include full-time universities, colleges, high professional schools and short-term professional universities.

Institutions of Higher Learning for Adults  refer to educational establishments, set up in line with relevant rules approved by the government, enrolling staff and workers with senior secondary school or equivalent education ,and providing higher education courses in many forms of full time, part time, spare time, or correspondence for adults. Professionals thus trained receive a qualification equivalent to graduates studying regular courses at regular universities, colleges and professional colleges. Institutions of higher learning for adults include Radio and TV universities, schools of high education for staff and workers and peasants, colleges for management cadres, pedagogical colleges, independent correspondence colleges.

Enrollment Rate of Primary School age Children  refers to the proportion of school age children enrolled at schools to the total number of school age children both in and outside schools (including retarded children ,but excluding blind, deaf and mute children). The formula is:

Enrollment Rate of Primary School age Children=(Total Primary School age Children at Schools)÷ (Total Primary School age Children Both at and Outside Schools) ×100%

Independent Research and Development Institutions refer to the state owned institutions which have direct mission and research purpose, a certain number of core member with higher research level and a certain number of research personnel, necessary conditions for R & D activities and engaging in scientific research and technological development.The institutions also have their own independent organization and finance, authority to sign contracts with other units, with their own accounts in banks. Independent research and development institutions include the institutions attached to central government agencies, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the institutions attached to local governments.

Personnel of Independent Research and Development Institutions  refers to the persons working in and receiving payment from research and development institutions.It includes regular full-time and temporary staff and workers and employees working on contracts, but excludes retirees and persons leaving their work without payment but still retaining their posts, who are not on the employee list.

Total Expenditure on Research and Development  refers to all actual expenditure made for R&D (basic research, applied research and experimental development)in reference period.It includes direct expenditure on  R&D and indirect expenditure on R&D(including management and necessary administrative expenses of research institutes, investment in capital construction relating to R&D).

Scientists and Engineers  refer to persons who have completed university or higher education or obtained titles of senior and middle level professional positions.

Other Technical Personnel  refers to persons involved in science and technology with secondary specialized education or three-year college education and persons with junior professional titles.

Natural Scientific and Technical Personnel  refers to those professionals holding scientific and technical titles or taking such positions, or being graduated from departments of science, engineering, agriculture and medicine, and/or having been promoted in practice in different sectors of the national economy and working on research, teaching and production technique in the scientific and technological fields such as science, engineering, agriculture and medicine, etc. and the professionals doing administrative work related to science and technology in government agencies, enterprises and institutions.

    Engineering Professionals  refer to the persons who are engaged in engineering science and technology in different sectors of the national economy,including senior engineers, engineers, assistant engineers, technicians and technical personnel without professional titles.    

Agricultural Professionals  refer to the persons who are working on the science of agriculture in different sectors of the national economy,including senior agronomists, agronomists, assistant argonomists, technicians and technical personnel without professional titles.

Public Health Professionals  refer to the persons who are engaged in medical and health work in different sectors of the national economy,including director doctors and their deputies, doctors in charge, doctors, paramedics, nurses and technical personnel without professional titles.

Scientific Research Personnel  refers to those personnel engaged in scientific and technical activities in different sectors of the national economy,including research fellows and their deputies,assistant research fellows,research trainees,technicians and technical personnel without professional titles.

essionals engaged in the teaching of natural science and technology in different sectors of the national economy, including professors, associate professors, lecturers, teaching  assistants, teachers and teaching personnel in science and technology in middle schools.

Inventions  refer to the inventions as specified by the patent law and its detailed rules and regulations for implementation. They refer to the new technical proposals to the products or methods or their modifications.

Utility Models  refer to the utility models as specified by the patent law and its detailed rules and regulations for implementation. They refer to the practical and new technical proposals on the shape and structure of the product or the combination of both.

Designs  refer to the designs as specified by the patent law and its detailed rules and regulation for implementation. They refer to the aesthetics and industry applicable new designs for the shape, pattern and color of the product, or their combinations.

Cultural Institutions  refer to units which have their own organizational system and independent accounting system and specialize in or serve cultural development. They exclude other establishments run by these cultural institutions and amateur cultural groups established by various departments.

Art Troupe  refers to the troupe which is engaged in drama, opera, music, dance, acrobatics or other art performance, opens independent accounts with banks and has self-supporting accounting system; excluding the troupes which are engaged partly in industrial or agricultural activities, partly in art performance and the professional troupes organized by the people.     

Film Projection Units  refer to units with film projection equipment, full or part time projectionists, permanent or non permanent places,approved by related administrative departments to show films regularly for certain groups of audience, including those film projection units which have been approved to give commercial shows and run business with independent accounting system as well as those filmrenting units of the military system.

Number of Spectators at Art Performance  refers to the number of attendants at commercial shows, completely booked shows or free shows given in minority national areas,and does not include the number of spectators at rehearsals for examination  and internal shows for study.

Net Sales of Books   refers to books sold directly to readers and directly exported.

Typesetting of Books   refers to the volume of work (characters) of manual or laser typesetting ready for printing.

Printing of Books  refers to printing of books by stereotype or offset printing method.

Offset Printing  refers to mono or multi color materials printed by offset press.

Small Piece Printing  refers to printing of single-sheet products in small quantity.