Communiqué on National Expenditures on Science and Technology in 2019
National Bureau of Statistics of China2020-08-28 09:30




Communiqué on National Expenditures on Science and Technology in 2019 [1]

 

National Bureau of Statistics

Ministry of Science and Technology

Ministry of Finance

August 27, 2020

 

In 2019, China's investment in science and technology further increased, research and experimental development (R & D) investment maintained a rapid growth, national financial science and technology expenditure increased steadily, and research and experimental development (R & D) funding intensity continued to increase.

 

I. Research and Experimental Development (R & D) expenditures

 

In 2019, a total of 2,214.36 billion yuan of research and experimental development (R & D) funds were invested, an increase of 246.57 billion yuan or 12.5 percent over the previous year; the intensity of R & D investment (compared with GDP [2]) was 2.23 percent, 0.09 percentage point higher than that of the previous year [3]. Based on the full-time workload of research and experimental development (R & D) personnel, the per capita funding was 461000 yuan, an increase of 12000 yuan over the previous year.

 

In terms of activity types, the national basic research fund was 133.56 billion yuan, an increase of 22.5 percent over the previous year; the applied research fund was 249.85 billion yuan, an increase of 14.0 percent; the experimental development fund was 1,830.95 billion yuan, an increase of 11.7 percent. Basic research, applied research and experimental development accounted for 6.0, 11.3 and 82.7 percent respectively.

 

In terms of activity subjects, R & D expenditure of various enterprises was 1,692.18 billion yuan, an increase of 11.1 percent over the previous year; that of government-owned research institutions was 308.08 billion yuan, an increase of 14.5 percent; that of colleges and universities was 179.66 billion yuan, an increase of 23.2 percent. The proportion of expenditure of enterprises, government-owned research institutions and colleges and universities accounted for 76.4, 13.9 and 8.1 percent respectively.

 

From the perspective of industrial sectors, the research and experimental development (R & D) expenditure of high-tech manufacturing industry was 380.4 billion yuan, the input intensity (ratio to operating revenue) was 2.41 percent, 0.14 percentage point higher than that of the previous year; that of the equipment manufacturing industry was 786.8 billion yuan, with the input intensity of 2.07 percent, 0.16 percentage point higher than that of the previous year. Among the industrial enterprises above designated size, there were nine industries with R & D investment of more than 50 billion yuan, accounting for 69.3 percent of the total R & D expenditure of Industrial enterprises above designated size (see Table 1 for details).

 

In terms of regions, there were six provinces (cities) with R & D investment exceeding 100 billion yuan, namely Guangdong (309.85 billion yuan), Jiangsu (277.95 billion yuan), Beijing (223.36 billion yuan), Zhejiang (166.98 billion yuan), Shanghai (152.46 billion yuan) and Shandong (149.47 billion yuan). There were 7 provinces (cities) with R & D investment intensity (ratio of R & D to GDP [4]) exceeding the national average level, namely Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shaanxi (see Table 2 for details).

 

II. S&T funds allocated by finance

 

In 2019, the state financial expenditure on science and technology was 1,071.74 billion yuan, an increase of 119.92 billion yuan or 12.6 percent over the previous year. Among them, the central government's expenditure on science and technology was 417.32 billion yuan, an increase of 11.6 percent, accounting for 38.9 percent of the fiscal expenditure on science and technology; and 654.42 billion yuan was spent on science and technology from the local government, an increase of 13.2 percent, accounting for 61.1 percent.

 

Financial Allocation for Science and Technology in 2019

 

 

S&T funds

allocated by finance

(10,000 million yuan)

Y/Y

Ratio accounted to national financial expenditure

(%)

 

 

 

 

Total

10717.4

12.6

Of which:  Expenditures in S&T promotions

9470.8

13.7

88.4

           Other features of expenditures for science and technology expenditures

1246.6

4.6

11.6

Of which:  Central

4173.2

11.6

38.9

           Local

6544.2

13.2

61.1

 

 

 

 

 

Notes: [1] Data in this Communique do not include the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan Province. Because of rounding some data, there are differences between total and sub-total.

 

[2] Preliminary accounting data of GDP in 2019.

 

[3] According to the final verification data of gross domestic product of the National Bureau of Statistics in 2018 based on the fourth national economic census, the intensity of R&D investment in 2018 has been revised to 2.14 percent.

 

[4] The GDP are preliminary annual accounting data.

 

Appendix I   Expenditures in R&D of Industrial Enterprises Above Designed Size by Sectors in 2019 

 

Sector

Expenditures in R&D

(100 million yuan)

Intensity of R&D Investment (%)

 

 

 

Total

13971.1

1.32

Mining and Quarrying

288.1

0.62

Mining and Washing of Coal

109.2

0.44

Extraction of Petroleum and Natural Gas

93.8

1.08

Mining of Ferrous Metal Ores

13.4

0.39

Mining of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores

21.8

0.65

Mining and Processing of Nonmetal Ores

18.6

0.54

Mining Support Service Activities

31.2

1.31

Manufacturing

13538.5

1.45

Processing of Food from Agricultural Products

262.0

0.56

Manufacture of Foods

156.2

0.82

Manufacture of Wines, Beverage and Refined Tea

107.6

0.70

Manufacture of Cigarettes and Tobacco

30.4

0.27

Manufacture of Textile

265.9

1.11

Manufacture of Textile Wearing Apparel and Ornament

105.6

0.66

Manufacture of Leather, Fur, Feather and Its Products

80.3

0.69

Processing of Timbers, Manufacture of Wood, Bamboo, Rattan, Palm, and Straw Products

63.2

0.74

Manufacture of Furniture

73.6

1.03

Manufacture of Paper and Paper Products

157.7

1.18

Printing, Reproduction of Recording Media

79.6

1.20

Manufacture of Articles for Culture, Education, Artwork, Sport and Entertainment Activity

118.2

0.92

Petroleum, coal and other Fuel Manufacturing

184.7

0.38

Manufacture of Chemical Raw Material and Chemical Products

923.4

1.40

Manufacture of Medicines

609.6

2.55

Manufacture of Chemical Fibers

123.7

1.44

Manufacture of Rubber and Plastics Products

357.6

1.41

Manufacture of Non-Metallic Mineral Products

520.1

0.97

Manufacture and Processing of Ferrous Metals

886.3

1.25

Manufacture and Processing of Non-Ferrous Metals

479.8

0.85

Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products

466.4

1.36

Manufacture of General-Purpose Machinery

822.9

2.15

Manufacture of Special-Purpose Machinery

776.7

2.64

Manufacture of Motor Vehicles

1289.6

1.60

Manufacture of Railway Locomotives, Building of Ships and Boats, Manufacture of Air and Spacecrafts and Other Transportation Equipment

429.1

3.81

Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and Equipment

1406.2

2.15

Manufacture of Computer, Communication Equipment and Other Electronic Equipment

2448.1

2.15

Manufacture of Measuring Instrument and Meter

229.1

3.16

Other Manufacturing

39.8

2.44

Waste Recycling and Recovery

28.2

0.62

Repair of Fabricated Metal Products, Machinery and Equipment

17.1

1.28

Production and Distribution of Electricity, Heat, Gas and Water

144.5

0.18

Production and Supply of Electric Power and Heat Power

113.0

0.17

Production and Distribution of Gas

17.0

0.19

Production and Distribution of Water

14.4

0.48

 

 

 

 

Appendix II  Expenditures in R&D by Region in 2019

 

Region

Expenditures in R&D

(100 million yuan)

Input intensity of R&D funds (%)

 

 

 

National Total

22143.6

2.23

 

 

 

Beijing

2233.6

6.31

Tianjin

463.0

3.28

Hebei

566.7

1.61

Shanxi

191.2

1.12

Inner Mongolia

147.8

0.86

 

 

 

Liaoning

508.5

2.04

Jilin

148.4

1.27

Heilongjiang

146.6

1.08

 

 

 

Shanghai

1524.6

4.00

Jiangsu

2779.5

2.79

Zhejiang

1669.8

2.68

Anhui

754.0

2.03

Fujian

753.7

1.78

Jiangxi

384.3

1.55

Shandong

1494.7

2.10

 

 

 

Henan

793.0

1.46

Hubei

957.9

2.09

Hunan

787.2

1.98

Guangdong

3098.5

2.88

Guangxi

167.1

0.79

Hainan

29.9

0.56

 

 

 

Chongqing

469.6

1.99

Sichuan

871.0

1.87

Guizhou

144.7

0.86

Yunnan

220.0

0.95

Xizang

4.3

0.26

 

 

 

Shanxi

584.6

2.27

Gansu

110.2

1.26

Qinghai

20.6

0.69

Ningxia

54.5

1.45

Xinjiang

64.1

0.47

 

 

 

 

Annotations:

 

1. Explanatory Notes on Main Statistical Indicators

 

Expenditures on Research and Development (R&D): refers to the actual expenditures spent in basic researches, applied researches and experimental development by the whole society within statistical year. Including personnel fees, material costs, purchasing and construction fees of fixed assets, management fees and other expenses that actually spent in R&D activities.

 

Basic Research refers to empirical or theoretical research aiming at obtaining new knowledge on the fundamental principles regarding phenomena or observable facts to reveal the intrinsic nature and underlying laws and to acquire new discoveries or new theories. Basic research takes no specific or designated application as the aim of the research.

 

Applied Research refers to creative research aiming at obtaining new knowledge on a specific objective or target. Purpose of the applied research is to identify the possible uses of results from basic research, or to explore new (fundamental) methods or new approaches.

 

Experimental Development refer to systematic activities aiming at using the knowledge from basic and applied researches or from practical experience to develop new products, materials and equipment, to establish new production process, systems and services, or to make substantial improvement on the existing products, process or services.

 

2. Statistical Coverage

 

R&D expenditure statistics covered all enterprises and institutions with R&D activities in the whole society, including research institutions subordinated to the government departments, universities, and enterprises and institutions in the industries with relatively intensive R&D activities (including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery, mining, manufacturing, production and supply of electricity, gas and water, construction, transportation, storage and postal industries, information transmission, software and information technical services, finance, rent and business services, scientific research and technical services, water conservancy, environment, and public facilities management industry, health and social affairs, culture, sports and entertainment, etc.).

 

3. Survey Methods

 

The survey methods of research and experimental development (R & D) funds are as follows: industrial enterprises above designated scale, special and first-class construction enterprises, service industries above designed size (including transportation, warehousing and postal services, information transmission, software and information technology services, leasing and business services, scientific research and technical services, water conservancy, environmental and public facilities management, health and social work). Enterprises in cultural, sports and entertainment industries, research institutions affiliated to the government, colleges and universities are obtained by comprehensive survey, industrial enterprises under the scale are obtained by sampling survey, enterprises and institutions in other industries are obtained by means of key survey and data calculation of the second national R & D resources inventory.

 

Annex
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